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39 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the functions of the circulatory system?
transport oxygen and nutrients to tissues via arterial blood

take co2 and wates away from tissues for elimination

regulate hormone transport and temperature regulation = blood circulates towards surface of body to cool the body temperature

protection from the immune system and blood clotting
Describe the flow of blood through the blood vessels?
blood leaves the heart via the arteries

branches into the arterioles

branch into the small/thin cappilaries and blood

returns to the heart through venules that lead into veins
What are arteries and arterioles?
smooth muscle vasocontricts

decrease blood flow

smooth muscle vasodilates

increase blood flow
Which one flows away from the heart?
arteries carry oxygenated blood from the heart

veins carry deoxygenated blood to the heart
What are venules and veins?
less smooth muscle

lower pressure as skeletal muscles squeez the veins making blooid flow
In order to deliver much needed oxygen and nutrients to different places in the body what kinds of organisms have evolved to accomodate their circulatory and respiratory systems?
fish, amphibians and reptiles, and mammilian and bird
What is unique about the fish heart?
chambered heart

sinus venosus and atrium = collecting chambers

ventricle and conus arteriosus = pumping chambers

one circulation
What is unique about amphibian and reptilian hearts?
two circulations

pulmonary circulation = between heart and lungs

systemic circulation = between heart and the rest of the body
Whaty is unique about the mammilian and bird heart?
four chambered heart

two venticles and two atriums

right atrium and ventricle collect deoxygenated blood from the rest of the body and pump it to the lungs

left atrium and ventricle pump oxygenated blood from lungs to the rest of the body
What causes electrical excitation and the contraction of the heart?
elecrtrical signals or action potentials in heart cause contraction of muscle at the sinoatrial node = site of heartbeat

sinoatrial node = spontaneous AP

conduction goes through the rest of the heart
What is stroke volume?
blood volume / heart beat
What does the SA do?
produces spontaneous depolarizations that is transmitted through the rest of the heart to contract
What is cardiac output?
blood volume pumped per minute
C.O. = heart rate x stroke volume

70bpm x 70ml/beat = C.O.
How is heart rate determined?
it is determined by the number of AP at the sinoatrial node SA

it can depend on SNS
electrolytes like K+
and thyroid hormone
What is stroke volume influenced by?
volume of blood and strength of contraction (SNS increase strength of contraction)
What does arterial blood pressure depend on?
cardiac output and resistance to flow
What are some influences of hypertension?
What is cardiovascular disease?
it is the leading cause of death in the U.S. and it includes:

angina pectoris = chest pains due to insufficient blood flow to the heart

heart attacks = blocked arteries

strokes = interference with blood supply to the brain and damage resulting in fibrillation or an irregular heart beat or unsyncronized contraction of heart muscle

atherosclerosis = accumulation of fatty materials and cellulose debris due to smoking high cholesterol or genetics

arterioschleosis = hardening of the arteries and occurs when calcium deposits on the arterial walls and with severe atheroschlerosis
What is internal and external respiration?
internal = aerobic respiration = glucose and O2 = = water, CO2 and ATP

external = movement or exchange of gases between the cells of the organism and environment
What is the principle for gas exchange between an organsim and its environment?
exchange of O2 and CO2 between an organism and its environment


increase in concentration gradient

increase in surface area

and decrease in distance that the diffusing gases must travel
How do animals maximize their rate of diffusion?
by beating cilia to produce water current

and by bringing ecternal environment closer to internal environment by increasing the surface area of the respiratory organs
What do external gills do for fish?
they provide a large surface area for gas exchange
How is water brought in to the gill?
the mouth of the fish is opened and water is brought in through the buccal cavity

then the mouth is closed and the operculum is opened which then moves water past gills and in right direction

gills are great at extracting oxygen from water
What is ram ventilation?
it is swimming with the mouth opened
Why would gills be replaced in terrestrial organisms?
terrestrial organsims the gills would collapse = air is less buoyant than water

gills rely on water for their support

water diffuses into air through evaporation

would allow a larger surface area for more lose of water through evaporation
What are the main organs replaced by the gills in the terrestrial organism?
the trachea and lungs
Describe amphibian lungs?
lungs = outpouching of the gut which forces air into the lungs from the buccal cavity
Describe reptilian lungs?
expand rib cage creating a vacuum and forcing air into their lungs
In mammals when air is brought in what structures does air pass through?
first the trachea bronchi and bronchioles
What are mammilian lungs filled with?
alveoli that are tiny sacs clustered like grapes

add more surface area to the lungs that allow a larger surface area for gas exchange
Describe respiration in birds and where gas exchange takes places?
gas exchange = parabronchi

air enters through posterior airsacs and to the parabronchi and out through anterior airsacs and out through the trachea
What is boyle's law of the mechanics of breathing?
volume of a given quantity of gas increases the pressure of the gas decreases
What are the steps in respiration?
1 bring air into the lungs
2 through diffusion oxygen is taken from the air and into the blood
3 transport of O2 through arterial blood
4 through diffusion O2 is delivered to tissues
5 CO2 is picked up from tissues
6 CO2 is transported in venous blood
7 get CO2 out of blood and into air through diffusion
8 CO2 is exhaled
What is gas exchange?
diffusion of gas down gradient
What is hemoglobin?
protein with four subunits and an iron center at each heme group

\\it loads up with O2 in the lungs in a reverse reaction called oxyhemoglobin
What is a problem with CO poisoning and hemoglobin
hemoglobin can readily bind to CO2 and CO and cause there to be no place for O2 to bind
Describe CO2 transport?
10% of of CO2 is dissolved in plasma
20% binds to hemglobin
70% is diffused in to RBC where bicarbonate is produced to serve as a buffer for the acid base balance of the blood
What is the importance of atmospheric pressure?
it determines the amount of gas in air or liquid
What happens to air at high altitudes?
atmospheric pressure is low and there is not a lot of O2 in the air

keep in mind deep sea diving and the bends