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24 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the four levels of organization in the vertebrate body?
organ systems
What are tissues?
they are groups of cells similar in structure and function
What are the three germ layers that embryotic tissue differentiates itself into when it is a growing embryo?
endoderm inner
mesoderm middle
ectoderm outer
What are the four primary adult vertebrate tissues?
What is the function of the epithelium?
cover surfaces of body

provide slective barrier for skin and lungs

secretion and absorption and glands
What are the two types of connective tissue?
loose connective and dense connective
What is loose connective tissue?
they are scattered cells that include fibroblasts and adipose cells
What is dense connective tissue?
collagen fibers, and strong flexible connects that include tendons and ligaments, organs, muscles and nerve coverings
What is cartilage?
a special connective tissue

long firm but flexible fibers

found in discs, joints, ears, nose and trachea
What is bone?
special connective tissue

provides rigid support for muscle attachment...skeleton
What is blood?
special connective tissue

erythrocytes or RBC that use hemoglobin for oxygen transport

leukocytes or WBC that are used for immune function
Where is voluntary contraction found?
in the skeletal system
Where is involuntary contraction found?
in smooth and cardiac muscles
What is included in smooth muscle?
internal organs, blood vessels, etc.
What is included in skeletal muscle?
attacged to tendons/bones and allows skeleton to move
What is the cardiac muscle?
cells joined at gap junctions
and form single functioning unit
What are the actions of the skeletal muscles?
attached to bones by tendons

produce movement when the muscles contract
What is a muscle composed of?
composed of muscle fibers or cells made up of myofibrils

myofibrils made up of thick and thin myofilaments that are composed of actin = thin and myosin = thick
What is a sarcomere?
smallest subunit of muscle contraction

overlapping arrangement leads to striated appearance

thin filaments are connected at Z lines
When/how does muscle contract?
muscle contract when thick filaments (myosin) grabs thin filaments (actin) and slide them inward bringing the z lines closer together
What happens when a nerve stimulates the action potential in a muscle?
causes Ca++ to enter the cytoplasm

initiates contact between thick and thin filaments

sliding of filaments requires ATP
What are neurons?
specialized cells

used to conduct and produce electrical impulses
What are neuroglia?
nerve tissues

eliminate foreign materials and support and insulate neurons
What are some types of neurons?
sensory = collects information

motor = muscle contraction

interneuron = connects neurons to each other in the brain and spinal cord