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175 Cards in this Set

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adipose cells/tissue
cells/tissue which store fat
amino acids
building blocks of proteins
basal metabolic rate (BMR)
rate of energy expenditure of the body at complete rest
body mass index (BMI)
measure of obesity calculated as weight (kg) divided by (height in m)^2
calorie, caloric intake
unit of energy

caloric intake/expenditure is the amount of energy available in food and energy expended by the body
carbohydrates
organic molecules used as an energy source; includes mono/di/polysaccharides
fats
lipids; organic nonpolar molecules that include fats, triglycerides, and cholesterol
fatty acids
organic molecules used as energy that form triglycerides when joined with glycerol
glucose
primary energy source of body (a monosaccharide)
lipids
fats; organic nonpolar molecules that include fatty acids, triglycerides, and cholesterol
macronutrients
proteins, carbohydrates, lipids--nutrients that serve as the main energy sources
proteins
polymers of amino acids that serve a variety of functions in the body
sequelae
adverse consequences of a disease
sugars
mono- & disaccharides
triglycerides
lipids made up of
1 glycerol molecule
3 fatty acids
skinfold
measure of body fat based on thickness of subcutaneous fat under the upper arm
waist-hip ratio
a measure of truncal obesity based on the ratio of waist circumference to hip circumference
beta cells
cells in the pancreas that secrete insulin
diabetes mellitus
a condition resulting from high blood glucose and a lack of insulin
hormone
molecule secreted by a cell that changes the body's function when in contact with its specific receptor
hyperglycemic
high blood sugar
hypoglycemic
low blood sugar
insulin
hormone secreted by pancreas which lowers blood glucose levels
insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus
Type 1

characterized by a sudden onset of a lack of insulin
ischemic heart disease
heart damage due to insufficient blood or oxygen supply to heart muscle
ketoacidosis
a state due to lack of insulin in which excess ketones and acids are produced
macrovascular
relating to blood vessels that are large enough to be seen with the eye
microvascular
relating to microscopic blood vessels
non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus
Type 2

gradual onset of insulin resistance
polypeptide
chain of amino acids; term generally means a short chain
receptor
molecule which, when bound to its hormone, changes the function of a cell
retinopathy
damage to the retina (membrane in back of the eye)
stroke
sudden brain damage due to an insufficient blood supply to the brain
truncal obesity
obesity that is pronounced in the abdomen and is measured as a high wasit-hip ratio
ulcers
sores in the skin or inner intestinal wall
angioplasty
repair of artery through a catheter inserted into the inside of the artery
aorta
main systemic artery that receives blood from left ventricle
artery
blood vessel that carries blood from heart to peripheral tissues

(systemic circulation)
atheroma
fat deposit in wall of artery causing partial blockage
atherosclerosis
condition in which arteries are narrowed and hardened due to fat deposits, fibrosis, and calcification
atrium
small chamber of heart that receives blood from veins and pumps it to ventricles
bypass
surgical procedure in which blockage of artery is bypassed by connecting another blood vessel (usually a vein taken from the leg) to the artery on both sides of the blockage
calcification
deposition of calcium in a tissue, making it hard
cholesterol
soft, waxy compound needed for cell membranes to maintain their shape; accumulates in walls of arteries if levels in blood are too high
collaterals
new branches of blood vessels that bypass blockage
congestive heart failure
condition in which heart does not pump sufficient blood, causing fluid to accumulate in legs and lungs
coronary arteries
arteries which supply blood to heart muscle
deadly quartet
combination of:
-diabetes
-hypertension
-hyperlipidemia
-obesity
defribrillation
restoration of normal heart electrical rhythm by applying an electrical shock to the heart
endothelium
thin layer of cells that line blood vessels
fibrillation
uncoordinated, ineffective electrical activity of heart muscles; causes death if not corrected in minutes
high-density lipoproteins (HDL)
particles that contain cholesterol, triglycerides, and proteins that transport cholesterol from peripheral tissues to liver

(the GOOD kind)
hyperinsulinemia
high amounts of insulin in blood
hyperlipidemia
high amounts of cholesterol in blood
ischemia
reversible damage to tissue due to insufficient oxygen, usually caused by not enough blood flow
low-density lipoproteins (LDL)
particles that contain cholesterol, triglycerides and proteins that transport cholesterol from liver to peripheral tissues

(the BAD kind)
monounsaturated fat
fat that is liquid at room temperature

usually comes from vegetable oil
myocardial infarction
permanent damage to heart muscle due to ischemic heart disease
palpitations
abnormal sensations of heart beating in chest
platelets
small cell fragments that are responsible for blood clotting
polyunsaturated fat
fat that is liquid at room temperature

usually comes from fish oil
pulmonary
pertaining to the lungs
saturated fat
fat that is solid at room temperature

usually comes from meat
smooth muscle
cells in wall of arteries that regulate size of arteries and can accumulate cholesterol
syndrome X
aka deadly quartet

-diabetes
-hypertension
-hyperlipidemia
-obesity
systemic
relating to the main parts of the body excluding the lungs
thrombosis
blood clotting
trans fat
fat caused by "hydrogenation" of mono/polyunsaturated fats to produce margarine or other dairy fat substitutes
vein
blood vessel that carries deoxygenated blood from peripheral tissues to the heart
ventricle
larger chamber of heart that receives blood from atrium and pumps it into arteries
anticoagulants
bloods that slow down or prevent blod clotting
capillaries
tiny blood vessels that supply oxygen to tissues; connect smallest arteries to smallest veins
cardiac output
amount of blood pumped by the heart per minute
cerebrovascular disease
injury in the brain caused by problems in arteries supplying the brain;

common cause: stroke
diastolic blood pressure
lowest blood pressure in the pulse cycle
diuretics
drugs that cause loss of sodium and water from the kidneys
embolic
caused by an embolism
embolism
blood clot that breaks free and travels through the blood stream to another area of the body
essential hypertension
HBP not caused by any known specific disease
hemorrhage
abnormal excess bleeding either externally or within tissues
hypertension
high blood pressure defined as SBP>140 or DBP > 90
renal
pertaining to the kidneys
systemic vascular resistance
resistance to blood flow in arteries
systolic blood pressure
highest blood pressure (peak) in the pulse cycle
thrombotic
caused by a blood clot
adenoma
neoplasm arising from glandular epithelium (cells that line an organ)
colon
large intestine
initiation of cancer
causing mutation which starts the process of transformation from a normal cell to a cancer cell
occult blood
blood present in stool but not readily visible
oncogene
cancer-promoting gene
promotion of cancer
causing series of mutations which cell line has initiated progress toward cancer
proto-oncogene
gene which has the potential of becoming an oncogene by mutation
polyp
mass of glandular and epithelial tissue that grows into intestine from intestinal wall
rectum
section of GI tract between sigmoid colon and anus
sigmoidoscopy
procedure that visualizes the interior of the sigmoid
adenocarcinoma
adenoma which displays signs of invading surrounding tissue or metastasis
apoptosis
programmed cell death
axillary
in the axilla (armpit)
benign
describes a tumor that does not spread to distant sites, invade surrounding tissue, or recur after removal
cancer
malignant tumor
carcinogen
chemical that initiates or promotes the development of cancer
carcinoma
cancer of epithelial or gland cells
differentiation
modification of cell structure and function to serve a specialized purpose
epithelium
layer of cells lining the free surface of organs
estrogens
steroid hormones that produce female sex characteristics
gland
an organ or cell that secretes something
lymph nodes
aggregations of immune cells at connection points in the lymphatic system
malignant
describes a tumor that spreads to distant sites, invades surrounding tissue, or recurs after removal
mammography
x-ray of breast to screen for cancer
menarche
time of first menstrual cycle
menopause
time of last menstrual cycle
metastasis
spread of malignant tumor to distant sites
mutation
error in transcription of DNA during cell division
neoplasm, tumor
purposeless, uncontrolled proliferation of cells
nulliparity
having borne no children
tamoxifen
drug which decreases the likelihood of breast cancer in high-risk women
undifferentiated
general in appearance; not specialized
alveolus (alveoli)
sac at the end of the respiratory tract that exchanges oxygen for carbon dioxide in the blood
bladder
organ that stores urine
bronchiole
small airway in respiratory tract
bronchus (bronchi)
large airway in respiratory tract
bronchogenic carcinoma
most common form of lung cancer; associated with smoking; includes squamous cell, small cell, large cell, and adenocarcinoma
capillaries
tiny blood vessels that connect the smallest arteries with the smallest veins; exchange oxygen with surrounding tissue
cessation
quitting (smoking)
cilia
tiny filaments that extend from the respiratory epithelium which assist in removing mucus and foreign material from respiratory tract
chronic bronchitis
chronic illness characterized by persistent cough
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
chronic lung disease that includes both chronic bronchitis and emphysema
curing
fermentation of tobacco to increase amount of nicotine
depressant
drug that slows down activity of the brain
emphysema
chronic lung disease characterized by decreased alveoli and enlargement of alveolar spaces
esophagus
section of GI tract between mouth and stomach
larynx
structure made of cartilage that provides voice ("voice box")
mucus
viscous fluid produced by cells in respiratory and GI tracts
nicotine
psychoactive drug in tobacco
particulate phase
portion of smoke that is solid particles
respiratory bronchioles
connect terminal bronchioles to alveoli; have membrane through which oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged
small cell carcinoma
type of bronchogenic carcinoma
stimulant
drug that increases activity of brain
tar
residue from tobacco smoke that has passed through a filter
terminal bronchioles
smallest bronchioles that do not have a membrane through which oxygen and carbon dioxide can be exchanged
tolerance
pattern in which persons regularly using a particular drug must use increasing amounts in order to achieve the same effect
vapor phase
portion of smoke that is gas phase of liquids
acetaldehyde
metabolic product of alcohol CH3CH=O
alcoholic hepatitis
inflammation of the liver due to alcohol consumption
bile
substance secreted by the liver to the intestine to help with digestion of fats
bilirubin
chemical that is a breakdown product of red blood cells that have died
chronic
developing over time or long-lasting
cirrhosis
condition in which most of the liver is replaced with fibrous tissue; caused by excessive alcohol consumption or other causes of liver damage
coma
a state of depression of brain function in which a person does not respond to brain stimuli
delirium tremens
condition caused by withdrawal of alcohol from a person who is addicted to alcohol;

sweating, tremors, anxiety, confusion, hallucinations
dementia
loss of general brain function, including memory and intellect
disinhibition
removal of normal psychosocial inhibitions to certain actions
disulfuram/antabuse
medicine that causes flushing and nausea in persons who consume alchohol
ethanol/ethyl alchohol
CH3-CH2-OH

alcohol
euphoria
general state or feeling of well-being
fatty liver
condition in which liver cells have large amounts of accumulated fat, usually produced by chronic alcohol consumption
fetal alcohol syndrome
condition that includes mental retardation and characteristic facial appearance in children whose mothers drank during pregnancy
hallucinations
subjective perceptions of things that don't exist
intoxication
changes in behavior caused by a toxin
jaundice
accumulation of bilirubin in blood and tissues from liver disease; recognizable by yellow skin and eyes
liver failure
condition in which nearly all liver functions are deficient
portal vein
vein through which blood travels from the liver to the intestine
seizure
sudden attack of uncoordinated electrical activity in brain manifested by involuntary movements
stupor
state of depression of brain function in which a person is incoherent and does not respond normally to stimuli
active prevention strategies
prevention strategies that require people to make a change in their behavior
antidepressants
prescription drugs used to treat depression; often used in suicides
antipsychotics
prescription drugs used to treat schizophrenia and other mental illnesses; often used in suicides
carbon monoxide
gas produced by automobiles, stoves, furnaces that can be lethal; mechanism for suicide, unintentional poisoning
contagion (in suicides)
clustering of suicides in place/time in which it appears suicides are influencing others to commit suicide
haddon matrix
a way of conceptualizing injury prevention strategies based on the phase (pre-injury, injury, post-injury) and whether the strategy is targeted to the host, vehicle, or vector
intent/manner of injury
categorization of injury as:

-unintentional
-intentional directed at another person (homicide)
-intentional directed at oneself (suicide)
mechanism of injury
the physical or chemical event that causes the injury

(ex: motor vehicle crash, firearm discharge, poisoning)
passive prevention strategies
prevention strategies that do not require people to make a deliberate change in their behavior

(more effective than active strategies)
phase of mechanism of injury
one of three steps in the mechanical process that causes injury:

1. pre-injury
2. injury
3. post-injury
vehicle
object that causes injury by delivering energy to the body

(ex: car, gun, knife)