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104 Cards in this Set

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What is puberty?
It is the sequence of events by which a child becomes a sexually competent young adult.
Pg. 310
True of False. The reproductive system begins to fully function before puberty is complete.
False. The reproductive system does not begin to fully function until puberty is complete.
Pg. 310
What are the approximate ages that sexual maturity occurs in girls and boys?
Sexual maturity occurs between the age of 11 and 13 in girls and 14-16 in boys.
Pg. 310
What hormones do the function of the primary sex organ in the individuals that reach sexual maturity later as compared to the opposite sex, depend on?
Function of the testes depends on stimulation by the gonadotropic hormones FSH and LH.
Pg. 310
Where are the proteins that stimulate the primary sex organs in males produced?
The Anterior Pituitary Gland
Pg. 310
How many compartments are the primary sex organs of males divided into and what are their corresponding names?
2 compartments

Interstitial Leydig cells
Seminiferous tubules
Pg. 310
What is secreted when the interstitial Leydig Cells are stimulated by a gonadotropic hormone?
Testosterone
(LH is the gonadotropic hormone that stimulates the secretion of testosterone)
Pg. 310
What is the function of the Seminiferous Tubular portion of the testes?
It produces sperm by meiotic division
Pg. 310
In sexual reproduction in all individuals, ________ are produced within the _______, which are the primary sexual organs
Gametes
Gonads
Pg. 310
Gametes are ______ cells, produced by ________ of diploid parent cells.
Haploid
Meiosis
Pg. 310
How many chromosomes does each gamete produced in sexual reproduction contain?
23
Pg. 310
What is the name of the diploid cell formed by the union of 2 gametes called?
A Zygote
Pg. 310
What are the first 22 pairs of chromosomes called?
Autosomal Chromosomes
Pg. 310
What is the 23rd pair of chromosomes called?
Sex Chromosomes
Pg. 310
What important code does the smallest sex chromosome contain?
It contains the code for Testis-Determining Factor (TDF)
(TDF causes early embryonic gonads to become testes)
Pg. 310
What will occur when the smallest sex chromosome and TDF are absent?
The embryonic gonads become ovaries
Pg. 310
Which compartment of the testes composes the majority of the weight of an adult testis?
The Seminiferous Tubules accounts for 90% of the weight of an adult testis
Pg. 311
Testosterone is the main ____________ the Leydig cells produce?
Androgens (Male Hormones)
Pg. 311
What is secreted by the Hypothalamus to stimulate the anterior pituitary to secrete FSH and LH?
Gonadotropic-Releasing Hormone (GnRH
Pg. 311
What is the relationship of the main androgen produced by the Leydig cells of the testes and the hormones secreted by anterior pituitary gland that causes these cells to secrete this androgen?
Testosterone exerts negative feedback inhibition on LH secretion from the anterior pituitary gland, and on GnRH secretion from the hypothalamus.
Pg. 311
What is the name of the polypeptide protein that is secreted by the compartment that accounts for 90% of the weight of an adult testis that antagonizes FSH secretion?
Inhibin
Pg. 311
What is the function of the hormone that is inhibited by Inhibin?
FSH enhances the production of sperm cells in the seminiferous tubules
Pg. 311
What is the name of the process which occurs when testosterone stimulates the seminiferous tubules to produce sperm?
Spermatogenesis
Pg. 311
What are the Secondary Sexual Characteristics that testosterone and its derivatives have on the body?
Growth and maintenance of the sex accessory organs (prostate and seminal vesicles)
Growth of the penis
Growth of facial, pubic, and axillary (underarm) hair
Body growth at puberty
Pg. 311
What is the name of the process which occurs because of the stimulation of protein synthesis by testosterone and its derivatives?
Anabolism
Pg. 311-312
What anabolic processes do testosterone and its derivatives promote?
Promotes the growth of the musculoskeletal system
Growth of the larynx (causing lowering of the voice)
Growth of other organs, as well s the stimulation of erythropoiesis (red blood cell production)
Pg. 311-312
What are the names of the parent stem cells that sperm are produced from?
Spermatogonia
Pg. 312
Where are Spermatogonia located?
They are located at the outer regions of the seminiferous tubules
Pg. 312
What do the spermatogonia and the cells derived from them compose?
They compose the “germinal epithelium” of the seminiferous tubules.
Pg. 312
Can a man continue to produce sperm throughout life? Why or why not can they?
Yes they can.
Because spermatogonia are renewed by mitosis (duplicate division), a man can continue to produce sperm throughout life.
Pg. 312
What are the diploid cells produced by the mitosis of spermatogonia called and how many chromosomes do they have?
Primary Spermatocytes
46 chromosomes
Pg. 312
What do the diploid cells produced by the mitosis of spermatogonia produce and how many chromosomes do they have?
Secondary Spermatocytes
23 chromosomes
Pg. 312
How many haploid spermatids are produced at the end of the second meiotic division?
4 haploid Spermatids
Pg. 312
Where are the spermatids produced by the second meiotic division located?
These are located near the lumen of the seminiferous tubule and have interconnected cytoplasm
Pg. 312
What is occurring when the cytoplasm is removed of the interconnected spermatids?
The cytoplasm is removed as the cells become more specialized, eventually forming four “Spermatozoa” (sperm) that are released into the lumen.
Pg. 312
Are the spermatozoa motile once they have been become more specialized forms of spermatids and released into the lumen?
No. The spermatozoa are nonmotile; can’t use their flagella to swim when they have been initially released into the lumen.
Pg. 312
What structure are the sperm moved through so that they can leave the testis and enter the head which is the first part of the Epididymis?
Rete Testis
Pg. 312
What do sperm enter once they have been moved through the Rete Testis?
The enter the head of the Epididymis
Pg. 312
Where do the sperm mature and become motile?
They become mature and motile as they pass through the Epididymis
Pg. 312
What do the seminiferous tubules also contain besides germinal epithelium?
They also contain nongerminal cells
(cells that don’t produce sperm)
Pg. 312
What is the name(s) of the nongerminal cells contained in the walls of the seminiferous tubules?
Sertoli Cells
or
Nurse Cells
or
Sustentacular cells
Pg. 312
What does each nurse cell extend from?
Each Sertoli cell extends from the basement membrane surrounding the tubule to the lumen, and each has tight junctions with the next.
Pg. 312
Why do the Sertoli cells form a continuous barrier around the circumference of the tubule?
Because each Sertoli cell extends from the basement membrane surrounding the tubule to the lumen, and each has tight junctions with the next.
Pg. 312
What cells are surrounded by Sertoli cell cytoplasm?
Spermatogonia
Primary Spermatocytes
Secondary Spermatocytes
And
Spermatids
Pg. 313
What are the general function(s) do the Sertoli cells perform?
Sertoli Cells:
1. Supply the developing sperm with needed molecules
2. Make the seminiferous tubules an immunologically privileged site
3. Eliminate the cytoplasm from spermatids, converting them into spermatozoa
4. Produce androgen-binding protein (ABP) and inhibin
5. Contain FSH receptor proteins
Pg. 313
What is a specific example listed in the reading of how Sertoli cells might supply the developing sperm with needed molecules?
The X chromosome of a developing germ cell is inactive. So the Sertoli cells may supply molecules coded by the X chromosome.
Pg. 313
What specific example listed in the reading references why Sertoli cells must make the seminiferous tubules an immunologically privileged site?
Because the secondary spermatozoa and spermatids are the only haploid cells in a man’s body and would otherwise be attacked by the man’s own immune system and immunologically rejected, Sertoli cells must normally protect the developing sperm.
Pg. 313
What is the process called when Sertoli cells eliminate the cytoplasm from spermatids, converting them into spermatozoa?
Spermatogenesis
Pg. 313
How might Sertoli cells help concentrate testosterone in the tubules?
What occurs as a result of this?
Sertoli cells secrete ABP(Antigen-Binding Protein) into the lumen. Its ability to bind androgens may help concentrate testosterone in the tubules.

This concentration of testosterone in the tubules and thereby promote its stimulation of spermatogenesis.
Pg. 313
What are the target cells of FSH?
Sertoli Cells
Or
Nurse Cells
Or
Sustentacular cells
Pg. 312-313
Any action of FSH in the testes must be produced through its stimulation of the ______________.
Sertoli cells
Or
Nurse Cells
Or
Sustentacular cells
Pg. 313
What do the action(s) of FSH include?
Production of ABP and Inhibin
And also the enhancement of spermatogenesis
Pg. 313
When does the testosterone dependent stimulation of spermatogenesis start?
It starts at puberty (and is needed to maintain spermatogenesis in an adult)
Pg. 313
How does Testosterone travel in the body?
It is secreted as a hormone into the blood.
Pg. 313
What type of regulator can Testosterone also work as and how does it accomplish this action?
It can also work as a paracrine regulator (stimulating adjacent cells).
It travels from the Leydig cells to the seminiferous tubules to stimulate spermatogenesis.
Pg. 313
What hormone is spermatogenesis indirectly dependent on?
It is indirectly dependent on LH secretion from the anterior pituitary
Pg. 313
Why is spermatogenesis indirectly dependent on a hormone secreted from the anterior pituitary?
Because LH secretion from the anterior pituitary stimulates Leydig cells to secrete testosterone.
Pg. 313
At puberty, the secretion of ______ from the anterior pituitary allows spermatogenesis to occur ______ than it would if it were absent.
FSH
Earlier
Pg. 313
What hormone secreted from the anterior pituitary is needed for optimum sperm production and fertility?
FSH
Pg. 313
The testes lie _________the abdominal cavity of the male within the________.
Outside
Scrotum
Pg. 313
Where do the testes begin their development?
They begin their development inside the abdominal cavity
Pg. 313
When do the testes descend into the scrotal sacs?
They descend into the scrotal sacs during the last two months of fetal development
Pg. 313
What condition results if the testes do not descend into the scrotal sacs?
Cryptorchidism
Pg. 313
What condition usually follows the condition of untreated un-descended testes?
Sterility (the inability to produce offspring)
Pg. 313
Why does the resultant condition that usually follows untreated un-descended testes occur?
Sterility usually results because the internal temperature of the body is too high to produce viable sperm.
Pg. 313
What is the occurrence of the condition of un-descended testes in full-term male infants?
Approximately 3%
Pg. 314
What is the name of the structure the testes normally descend through?
The Inguinal Canal (a channel in the pelvic muscles)
Pg. 314
What happens to the inguinal canal after the testes pass through?
It is mostly closed over with connective tissue
Pg. 314
What condition can occur if the covering of the area the testes normally descend through is ruptured?
An Inguinal Hernia can occur which allows the intestines to bulge through
Pg. 314
What structure helps regulate the of the testes and how does it accomplish this?
The Scrotum

It accomplishes this by holding them closer or farther away from the body through the action of Scrotal muscles.
Pg. 314
What structure do Spermatozoa enter once they leave the tail (last part) of the epididymis?
The Ductus (Vas) Deferens
Pg. 314
What is the path of the structure that spermatozoa enter once they have left the epididymis?
The Ductus (vas) deferens tube leaves the Scrotum and travels through the Inguinal Canal into the pelvic cavity.
Pg. 314
What paired structure secretes a fluid that composes about 60% of the volume of the semen?
Seminal Vesicles
Pg. 314
What monosaccharide is the fluid secreted by the seminal vesicles rich in?
It is rich in Fructose.
Which serves as an energy source for the sperm.
Pg. 314
What does the Ductus (Vas) Deferens become after the point where the paired seminal vesicles secrete their fluid into it?
It becomes the Ejaculatory Duct
Pg. 314
How long approximately is the ejaculatory duct and why is it this length?
It is about 2 cm

Because it enters the Prostate Gland
Pg. 314
What does the ejaculatory duct merge with once it has entered the prostate gland?
It merges with the Prostatic Urethra
Pg. 314
What types of substances does the prostate add to the semen?
Citric acid
Calcium
and
Coagulation Proteins
Pg. 314
What chemical substance does seminal fluid contain that causes the uterus to contract?
Prostaglandins
Pg. 314
The _____exits the prostate and then runs through the ___________of the penis.
Urethra

Ventral region
Pg. 314
What is lies on either side of the urethra, and just inferior to the prostate gland?
Bulbourethral Glands
or
Cowper’s Glands
Pg. 314
When are the secretions of the bulbourethral glands released and what do they do?
It is released early in sexual stimulation.

They lubricate the urethra
and
Make the seminal fluid gelatinous
Pg. 314
What prevents urine from entering the urethra during ejaculation?
Muscular Contractions of the Internal Urethral Sphincter
Pg. 314
What type of erectile tissue contributes to much of the internal portion of the glans penis?
Corpus Spongiosum
Pg. 314
What is the internal portion of the glans penis also called?
The head of the penis
Pg. 314
What type of erectile tissue contributes to much of the shaft of the penis?
Corpus Cavernosa
Pg. 315
Erection is produced by __________nerve-induced ___________that allows blood to enter the corpora cavernosa and corpus spongiosum
Parasympathetic

Vasodilation
Pg. 315
What is the primary stimulus for erection?
The primary stimulus for erection is stimulation of the nerve endings in the glans of the penis.
Pg. 315
What is the major neurotransmitter that produces the effect of an erection?
Nitirc Oxide (NO)
Pg. 315
What vascular effect does Nitric Oxide produce?
It produces relaxation of the vascular smooth muscle.
Pg. 315
How does Nitric Oxide produce an erection by relaxation of the vascular smooth muscle?
By stimulating the production of Cyclic Guanosine Monophosphate (cGMP).
Which causes the smooth muscle cells in the penile arterioles to relax and dilate so more blood flows into the erectile tissues.
Pg. 315
What is the name of the condition where failure of the erectile tissues to fill with blood and become erect?
Erectile Dysfunction
or
Impotency
Pg. 315
What is the glans penis normally covered by?
The Foreskin
or
Prepuce
Pg. 315
What is the name of the surgical removal of the prepuce?
Circumcision
Pg. 315
What are the names of the fluid-producing accessory glands in the male reproductive system?
Prostate
Seminal Vesicles
and
Bulbourethral
Pg. 315
What is the rhythmic muscle contractions called that cause seminal fluid to be expelled from the penis?
Ejaculation
Pg. 315
What part of the autonomic nervous system controls ejaculation?
Sympathetic nervous system
Pg. 315
True or False. In the male sexual response of erection and ejaculation both divisions of the autonomic nervous system work together.
True. In the male sexual response of erection and ejaculation the parasympathetic and sympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system work together or synergistically.
Pg. 315
What is the name of the physiological and psychological sensations that occur at the climax of sexual stimulation?
Orgasm
Pg. 315
What is the period of time called after an orgasm has occurred during which stimulation does not bring an erection?
Refractory Period
Pg. 316
What is the relationship between the refractory period length and age?
As age increases so does the Refractory Period
Pg. 316
Approximately how many sperm are in the 3.5 ml of semen expelled during ejaculation of a healthy individual?
400 million
Pg. 316
What will happen if the sperm are not released during sexual activity?
They will often be released automatically on approximately a monthly basis during a male’s sleep.
Pg. 316
What is the name of the event that may signal the onset of male puberty?
Nocturnal Emission
or
Wet Dream
Pg. 316