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8 Cards in this Set

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Reasons the conservation of biodiversity using a rain forest as example. Rain forest. Ethical, Ecological, Aesthetic, Economic.
Ethical: all species have a right to live. Cultural connection to biological world. Future Generations right to a healthy diverse planet.
Ecological: Dependence of species interaction. Species dies out, food chain disrupted, causing a chain reaction.
Aesthetic: beauty of rain forest, artistic beauty and inspiration.
Economic: source of materials vital for human life. Regulate weather, recycle nutrients, detoxify water. Medicine from plants.
Outline the factors the caused the extincion of one named animal and one named plant species.
Arizona Jaguar hunted for fur demand. Human population increased in jaguar inhabited areas, hunting increased. Last shot in 1905 in New Mexico. The Fluffy groundsel is a kind of herbal plant with clusters of yellow flowers. Extinction causes by farming, building, roads, and other human impacts in the America South West.
Outline Simpson diversity Index.
Measure of species diversity.
D=diversity index, N is the total # of organisms of all species found, n is the # of individuals of particular species. A high value of D suggests a stable and ancient ecosystem and low suggests pollution, recent succession or agricultural management. Index is determined by counting organisms on randomly chosen parts of any area. Monitoring over time shows changes in an ecosystem.
Explain the use of biotic indices and indicator species in monitoring environmental change.
Indicator species are highly sensitive to environmental changes, population change drastically depending on the environment. Good indicators of change. Frog Populations are very vulnerable to pollution and other changes, while sludge worms good indicators of low oxygen concentration in waterways.
Biotic indices are calculated via # of (in)tolerant species at a time. The # of these organisms in the indicator species populations can be monitored over time directly, easy to keep track of.
Damage caused to marine ecosystem by over-exploitation of fish
Fish fished excessively and number of adult fish falls below critical, leading to fish pop. crashes and destroy the fishing industry. Peru to anchovy fishers in 1973.
Int. measures promote the conservation of fish.
Int. Measure are needed since fish move through the oceans of multiple countries. Fish stock has fallen over last 50 years due to overfishing. Enforcement is difficult for any rules.
In. measures: monitoring stocks, reproduction rates, quotas for catches of species with low stocks, endangered species ban, min. net size, ban drift nets.
Advantages of in situ conservation of endangered species.
Undisturbed natural habitats of animals. Out of danger zones, reproduce naturally, survive greater rate, other species flourish, preserving biodiversity. Greater genetic variety.
However, numbers too low the animals cannot be left unprotected in the wild or habitat is being destroyed and will not stop.
Outline management of nature reserves
controlling alien species. Restore degraded areas. Promote recovery of threatened species e.g. feeding. Control exploitation by humans. Logging, land control.