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34 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What must the mechanisms for digesting, absorbing and transporting triacylglycerols accommodate?
their inherent hydrophobicity
Where does triacylglycerol digestion take place?
lipid-water interface
Bile salts
amphipathic detergent-like molecules that act to solubilize fat globules
From what is bile acid a derivative?
What makes bile acids?
As what are bile acids secreted by the liver and stored in the gallbladder?
glycine or taurine conjugates
Where does lipid digestion and absorption mainly take place?
small intestine
Pancreatic lipase or triacylglycerol lipase
catalyzes the hydrolysis of triacylglycerol at their 1 and 3 positions to form 1,2-diacylglycerol and 2-acylglycerol
Interfacial activation
the enzymatic activity of pacreatic lipase greatly increases when it contacts the lipid-water interface
What does binding to the lipid-water interface require?
mixed micelles of phophatidylcholine, bile acids, and pancreatic colipase
What does colipase do with lipase?
forms a 1:1 complex
-complexes of lipid and protein

-globular micelle-like particles that consist of a nonpolar core of triacylglycerols and cholesteryl esters surrounded by an amphiphilic coating of protein, phospholipid and cholesterol
What do intestinal mucosal cells do?
convert dietary fatty acids to triacyglycerols and package them, along with dietary cholesterol, into liproproteins called chylomicrons
Into what do the chylomicrons get released once they were made?
released into the intestinal lymph and are transported through lymphatic system before draining into the large veins
internally produced
protein components of lipoproteins
Where do chylomicrons deliver dietary triacylglycerols?
muscle and adipose tissue
Where do chylomicrons deliver cholesterol?
Chylomicron remnants
chylomicrons after their triacylglycerols were progressively hydrolyzed down to cholesterol enriched chylomicrons
What do very low density lipoproteins transport?
endogenous triacylglycerols and cholesterol
What degrades lipoproteins in the capillaries?
lipoprotein lipase
What controls the rate of LDL receptor synthesis?
intracellular concentration of free cholesterol
What function does HDL have?
help remove cholesterol from the tissue
Which organ is capable of disposing of large quantities of cholesterol?
Simple lipid
lipids that can't be broken down into smaller lipid constituents by hydrolysis reactions: triacylglycerol
Complex lipid
lipid composed of different molecules held together by ester linkages and susceptible to cleavage reactions
Neutral lipid
a class of lipid molecules that have no charge or polarity
What are some charged or polar lipids?
glycerophosolipids, sphingolipids, glycolipids
having both a charged and non-charged (apolar) group in same structure
class of non-polar lipids whose distinguishing feature is one or more fatty acids esterified to glycerol
a class of polar lipids whose core structure is glycerol esterified to 2 fatty acids and a phosphate group
physical act of breaking up a lipid compound into smaller components for purpose of dissolving or permitting greater interaction with water
a compound capable of emulsifying a lipid compound
organized group of fatty acids or amphipathic compounds that assumes an ordered configuration in aqueous solution