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25 Cards in this Set

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What does Imidazole look like?
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Metabolite
A chemical intermediate in the enzyme-catalyzed reactions of metabolism
Nucleus
In eukaryotes, a membrane-bounded organelle that contains chromosomes
Genome
All the genetic information encoded in a cell or virus
Eukaryote
A unicellular or multicellular organism with cells having a membrane-bounded nucleus, multiple chromosomes, and internal organelles
Prokaryote
A bacterium; a unicellular organism with a single chromosome, no nuclear envelope, and no membrane-bounded organelles
Archaebacteria
One of five kingdoms of living organisms; includes many species that thrive in extreme enviroments of high ionic strength, high temperature, or low pH
Eubacteria
One of five kingdoms of living organisms; They have a plasma membrane but no internal organelles or nucleus
Cytoskeleton
The filamentous network providing structure and organization to the cytoplasm; includes actin filaments, microtubules, and intermediate filaments
Stereoisomers
Compounds that have the same composition and the same order of atomic connections but different molecular arrangements
Configuration
The spatial arrangement of an organic molecule that is conferred by the presence do either (1) double bonds, about which there is no freedom of rotation, or (2) chiral centers, around which substituent groups are arranged in a specific sequence. Configurational isomers cannot be interconverted without breaking one or more covalent bonds
Chiral Center
An atom with substituents arranged so that the molecule is not superimposible on its mirror image
Conformation
The spatial arrangement of substituent groups that are free to assume different positions in space, without breaking any bonds, because of the freedom of bond rotation
Entropy (S)
The extent of randomness or disorder in a system
Enthalpy (H)
The heat content of a system
Free-Energy Change (^G)
The amount of free-energy released (negative ^G) or absorbed (positive ^G) in a reaction at constant temp and pressure
Endergonic Reaction
A chemical reaction that consumes energy (that is, for which ^G is positive)
Exergonic Reaction
A chemical reaction that proceeds with the release of free energy (that is, for which ^G is negative)
Equilibrium
The state of a system in which no further net change is occuring; the free energy is at a minimum
Standard Free-Energy Change (^G')
The free-energy change for a reaction occuring under a set standard of conditions: temp, 298K; Pressur, 1atm or 101.3kPa; and all solutes at 1M concs. ^G' denotes the standard free-energy change at pH 7.0 in 55.5M water
Activation Energy (^G*)
The amount of energy (in joules) required to convert all the molecules in 1 mole of a reacting substance from the ground state to the transition state
Catabolism
The phase of intermediary metabolism concerned with the energy-yielding degradation of nutrient molecules
Anabolism
The phase of intermediary metabolism concerned with the energy-requiring biosynthesisof cell components from smaller precursors
Metabolism
The entire set of enzyme-catalyzed transformations of organic molecules in living cells; the sum of anabolism and catabolism
Mutation
An inheritable change in the nucleotide sequence of a chromosome