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41 Cards in this Set

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Acid form in nature?
-ic
Salt or ester form at neutral pH?
-ate
Systematic name for saturated and unsaturated fatty acids?
Saturated (-anoic)

Unsaturated (-enoic)
Myristic acid
Found in dairy products.

Incorporated easily into membranes due to short length and hydrophobicity.
Palmitic acid
Found in animal products and palm trees.

Intermediate for other FA's

Signals for negative feedback for lipogenisis.

An antioxidant.
Stearic acid
Found in animals and vegetables.
Non-essential FA's
Made by the body.
Essential FA's (definition)
Not made by the body.

Essential for life.

Precursors for longer FA's.
Essential FA's
Two classes: omega-3's
omega-6's
Important omega-3's (and precursor FA):
EPA & DHA

alpha-linolenic acid
Important omega-6's (and precursor FA):
GLA & AA

Linoleic acid
DHA
Omega-3 FA

Originates in fish oil (Schizochytrium... microalgae).

Low DHA can possibly lead to Alzheimer's, ADHD, depression, etc.
AA
Synthesized only by animals.

Important in inflammation, hormone synthesis and pain... arachodonic acid cascase.

Precursor for prostoglandins & eicosanoids (inflammation/immune response; cell signaling), endogonous cannaboids (affect mood & behavior), lipoxins and resolvins (downregulating inflammation).
Triacylglycerols
(Triglycerides)
Glycerol esterified with three fatty acids.

Simple and mixed.

Major energy reserve... found mainly in adipose.
Phospholipids
Broad class of phospholipids with an esterified phosphate group.
Glycerophospholipid
Parent compound of other glycerophospholipids.

Allows proteins to cross membrane by attaching them.
Glycerophospholipids
A diglyceride + a phosphate group at the 3rd carbon of the glycerol backbone.

Main function is membrane formation.
Phosphatides
Phosphatidic acid +

-Ethanolamine (membranes)
-Inositol (signalling)
-Choline (forms lethicin... signalling and membrane)
Diphosphatidylglycerol
forms cardiolipin (heart function)
Lethicin
Isolated from egg yolks and soy beans.

Used as an emulsifier.. or surfactant.
Phospholipases
Cleave fatty acids from glycerophospholipids in membranes.

Found in snake venom.
Ether Glycerophospholipids
PAF = Platelet activating factor.

Important in signal transduction... especially in blood and bodily fluids.
PAF
Platelet activation. (coagulation)

Vasodilation (BP drops)

Secreted by fertilized egg ... signals implantation.

Secreted by fetal lung tissue... keeps lungs from collapsing.
Waxes
Long chain FA's esterified to long chain alcohols
Terpene
Simple lipid ... no FA's.

Monoterpene = 2 C5's or C10

Triterpines - Squalene and lanosterol (precursors to cholestorol)

Tetraterpenes - Caretenoids
Polyprenols
Long chain of isoprene + alcohol.

Coumadin falls in this category.
Steroids
Terpene based... 3 hexagons and 1 pentagon (3 bedrooms and a bath).

Cholesterol is the most common steroid... precursor for all others.
Hormones
5 families derived from cholesterol.

Androgens - Testosterone
Progestins - Progesterone
Estrogens - Estradiol

Glucocorticoids - regulation of carb, protein, lipid metabolism (cortisol)

Mineralocorticoids - regulation of salt balance
Plasma Membrane
Cytoplasmic membrane

Outer boundry of cell.

Import and export of molecules...transfer of messages in signal transduction.
Nuclear membrane
Nucleic acid synthesis
Main membrane lipids
5 Phospholipids
1 Sphingolipid
4 Phosphogylcerides
1 Glycolipid
1 Steroid
Monolayers
Single layer of lipids.

Polar head towards the water.
Bilayers
Tail-to-tail arrangement of lipids
Micelles
Inside out - Sphere with hydrophobic heads facing in (trap water in micelle).

Normal - Sphere with tails facing inward.
Uniamellar vesicle
Single bilayer.

Usually called liposomes inside cytoplasm.

Can be used as a drug delivery vehicle.
Multiamellar vesicle
Bilayers nestled inside of bilayers.
Transfection
Inserting foreign DNA inside other DNA.
Integral/intrinsic proteins
proteins extending through the membrane
Peripheral/extrinsic/apical proteins
Proteins anchored to membrane or integral proteins... do not cross entire membrane.
Lipid achored proteins
Peripheral proteins covalently linked to lipid
4 Motifs of lipid anchored proteins.
Amide-linked myristoyl
Thioester-linked fatty acyl
Thioether-linked prenyl
Amide-linked glcysylphosphidylinositol

Very important in cell signaling.