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23 Cards in this Set

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incorrect bases incorporated during DNA replication which are not removed by DNA polymerase are eventually corrected by which system?
Mismatch Repair (MMR)
shortly after completion of daughter strand creation, what can MMR use to distinguish between parent and daughter strand?
methylation status
which protein cuts the phophodiester backbone in MMR?
endonuclease
in MMR, helicases and exonuclease remove a long strand of DNA between ________ and ___________.
methylation site; mismatch
which two proteins are responsible for filling in the gap created by exonuclease activity in MMR?
DNA polymerase and ligase
which type of cancer is associated with mutations in genes encoding mismatch repair proteins?
hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer
what does NER stand for?
nucleotide excision repair
which type of damage does NER repair? Give 3 examples.
environmentally-induced; chemical modifications, intercalating agents, UV light.
inherited mutations in NER genes leads to which disorder?
Xeroderma pigmentosum
what type of DNA damage does homologous recombination repair act on?
double-stranded DNA breaks induced by ionizing radiation and chemotherapy
what are the two competing processes for repair of a double-stranded DNA break? Which of these is error-free?
homologous recombination and nonhomologous end joining; homologous recombination
what is used as a template in homologous recombination? To which parts of cell cycle is this limited?
a sister chromatid; S and G2
to which parts of cell cycle is NHEJ limited?
NHEJ can occur during any part of the cell cycle.
which chromosomal mutations often arrive as a result of NHEJ?
translocations and inversions
What is the name of the proteins recruited by the stalling of a DNA polymerase at the replication fork?
Translesion DNA Synthesis (TLS) DNA polymerases
None
are TLS DNA polymerases more or less error-prone than normal DNA polymerases?
more
which feature of TLS DNA polymerases causes them to disocciate from template after insertion of only a few bases?
low processivity
the Ames Test is a test of what?
carcinogenicity
the tester strain in the Ames test is deficient in which repair system?
NER
is the tester strain able or not to synthesize histidine? Upon which type of plates are strains grown to test carcinogenicity?
not able; Plates without histidine
why does the Ames Test not detect all strains that acquired a mutation during DNA replication?
only mutations that revert His- to His+ are detected and scored
indirect mutagens are converted to direct mutagens via which system?
the liver cytochrome P450 system
are all mutagens carcinogenic? Are all carcinogens mutagenic?
no; yes