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40 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Air entering the body is filtered, warmed, and humidified by the

a. upper respiratory tract
b. lower respiratory tract
c. lungs
d. alveoli
a. upper respiratory tract
Large airborne particles are filtered by

a. the soft palate
b. nasal hairs in the vestibule of the nose
c. the nasal sinuses
d. the nasopharynx
b. nasal hairs in the vestibule of the nose
Surfactant

a. protects the surface of the lungs
b. phagocytizes small particulates
c. replaces mucus in the alveoli
d. helps prevent the alveoli from collapsing
d. helps prevent the alveoli from collapsing
The function of the nasal conchae is to

a. divide the nasal cavity into a right and left side
b. provide an opening into the pharynx
c. provide a surface for the sense of smell
d. create turbulence in the air so as to trap small particulates in mucus
d. create turbulence in the air so as to trap small particulates in mucus
The opening to the nostrils are the

a. external nares
b. internal nares
c. vestibules
d. turbinates
a. external nares
The portion of the pharynx that receives both air and food is the

a. nasopharynx
b. oropharynx
c. laryngopharynx
d. vestibule
b. oropharynx
The hard palate separates the

a. nasal cavity from the larynx
b. left and right sides of the nasal cavity
c. nasal cavity and the oral cavity
d. soft palate from the nasal cavity
c. nasal cavity and the oral cavity
The openings to the auditory tubes are located in the

a. nasopharynx
b. oropharynx
c. laryngopharynx
d. nasal cavity
a. nasopharynx
The glottis is

a. the inferior margin of the soft palate
b. a flap of elastic cartilage
c. the opening of the larynx
d. the opening of the pharynx
c. the opening of the larynx
The vocal folds are located in the

a. nasopharynx
b. oropharynx
c. larynx
d. trachea
c. larynx
The elastic cartilage that shields the opening to the larynx during swallowing is the.

a. thyroid
b. cricoid
c. cuneiform
d. epiglottis
d. epiglottis
The cartilage that serves as a base for the larynx is the _________ cartilage.

a. thyroid
b. cuneiform
c. corniculate
d. arytenoid
a. thyroid
The pair of superior ligaments in the larynx that are covered by epithelium and help to close the glottis are

a. intrinsic ligaments
b. extrinsic ligaments
c. vestibular folds
d. vocal folds
c. vestibular folds
A pair of ligaments in the larynx that are covered by epithelium and function in sound production are

a. intrinsic ligaments
b. extrinsic ligaments
c. vestibular folds
d. vocal folds
d. vocal folds
The airway between the larynx and the primary bronchi is the

a. trachea
b. bronchiole
c. pharynx
d. alveoloar duct
a. trachea
Structures formed by the branching of the trachea within the mediastinum are

a. bronchioles
b. secondary bronchi
c. tertiary bronchi
d. primary bronchi
d. primary bronchi
The respiratory membrane consists primarily of

a. pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium
b. moist cuboidal epithelium
c. simple squamous epithelium
d. ciliated squamous epithelium
c. simple squamous epithelium
The actual sites of gas exchange within the lungs are

a. bronchioles
b. alveolar ducts
c. pleural spaces
d. alveoli
d. alveoli
Air moves into the lungs because

a. the gas pressure in the lungs is less than outside pressure
b. the volume of the lungs decreases with inspiration
c. the thorax is muscular
d. the respiratory control center initiates active expansion of the thorax
a. the gas pressure in the lungs is less than outside pressure
Each of the following muscles can elevate the ribs except the

a. sternocleidomastoid
b. external abdominal oblique
c. external intercostals
d. scalenes
b. external abdominal oblique
When the diaphragm and external intercostal muscles contract

a. the volume of the thorax increases
b. the volume of the thorax decreases
c. the volume of the lungs decreases
d. expiration occurs
a. the volume of the thorax increases
Pulmonary ventilation refers to the

a. movement of air into and out of the lungs
b. movement of dissolved gases from the alveoli to the blood
c. movement of dissolved gases from the blood to the interstitial space
d. movement of dissolved gases from the interstitial space to the cells
a. movement of air into and out of the lungs
Alveolar ventilation refers to the

a. movement of air into and out of the lungs
b. movement of air into and out of the alveoli
c. movement of dissolved gases from the alveoli to the blood
d. movement of dissolved gases from the blood to the alveoli
b. movement of air into and out of the alveoli
The process by which dissolved gases are exchanged between the blood and interstitial fluid is

a. pulmonary ventilation
b. external respiration
c. internal respiration
d. cellular respiration
c. internal respiration
Most of the oxygen transported by the blood is

a. dissolved in plasma
b. bound to hemoglobin
c. an ionic form as solute in the plasma
d. carried by the white blood cells
b. bound to hemoglobin
Most of the carbon dioxide in the blood is transported as

a. solute dissolved in the plasma
b. carbaminohemoglobin
c. bicarbonate ions
d. solute dissolved in the cytoplasm of red blood cells
c. bicarbonate ions
The most important chemical regulator of respiration is

a. oxygen
b. carbon dioxide
c. bicarbonate ion
d. hemoglobin
b. carbon dioxide
The normal rate and depth of breathing is established by the _______ center.

a. apneustic
b. pneumotaxic
c. expiratory
d. inspiratory
d. inspiratory
In quiet breathing

a. inspiration and expiration involve muscular contractions
b. inspiration is passive and expiration involves muscular contractions
c. inspiration involves muscular contractions and expiration is passive
d. inspiration and expiration are both passive processes
c. inspiration involves muscular contractions and expiration is passive
If a student inhales as deeply as possible and then blows the air out until he cannot exhale any more, the amount of air that he expelled would be his

a. tidal volume
b. inspiratory reserve volume
c. expiratory reserve volume
d. vital capacity
d. vital capacity
Which of the following factors would increase the amount of oxygen discharged by hemoglobin to peripheral tissues?

a. decreased temperature
b. decreased pH
c. increased PO2
d. decreased DPG
b. decreased pH
The chloride shift occurs when

a. hydrogen ions leave the red blood cells
b. hydrogen ions enter the red blood cells
c. bicarobonate ions enter the red blood cells
d. chloride ions exit the red blood cell
e. both c and d
e. both c and d
Lungs and airways that are inflated at birth normally do not collapse again because of all of the following except

a. abundant elastic tissue in the walls of the alveoli helps keep the alveoli open
b. surfactant prevents the alveoli from collapsing
c. negative intrathoracic pressure prevents total elastic recoil of the lungs
d. cartilage and connective tissues hold the airways open
a. abundant elastic tissue in the walls of the alveoli
During an asthma attack, an individual's

a. bronchioles dilate
b. expiratory reserve volume decreases
c. respiratory tract produces less mucus
d. diaphragm contacts in spasms
b. expiratory reserve volume decreases
With aging

a. the lungs become more elastic
b. the lungs become more compliant
c. vital capacity increases
d. pulmonary ventilation decreases
d. pulmonary ventilation decreases
In a condition known as pleurisy, there is excess fluid in the pleural space. How would you expect this to affect the process of pulmonary ventilation?

a. Ventilation would require less energy.
b. Breathing would be labored and difficult.
c. It would be easier to expand the lungs on inspiration.
d. More air would be forced out during an expiration
b. Breathing would be labored and difficult.
In emphysema, the alveoli break down and coalesce into large air spaces. The lungs also lose elasticity and compliance is increased. You would expect a person who suffers from emphysema to have

a. increased dead air space
b. increased anteroposterior diameter leading to increased vital capacity
c. elevated PCO2 in the blood
d. all of the above
d. all of the above
Damage to the phrenic nerves would

a. increase respiratory rate
b. increase the volume of normal respiration
c. result in decreased alveolar ventilation
d. have no effect on pulmonary ventilation
c. result in decreased alveolar ventilation
While playing in an intramural football game, Joe is tackled so hard that he breaks a rib. He can actually feel a piece of the rib sticking through the skin and he is having a difficult time breathing. Joe probably is suffering from

a. a collapsed trachea
b. an obstruction in the bronchi
c. a pneumothorax
d. decreased surfactant production
c. a pneumothorax
The respiratory rate times the tidal volume corrected for dead air is the

a. vital capacity
b. respiratory minute volume
c. pulmonary ventilation rate
d. alveolar ventilation rate
d. alveolar ventilation rate