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23 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
-Under the influence of estrogen the Mullerian ducts transform into internal female genitalia, and the cloaca begins to develop external female genitalia. Testosterone stimulates the development of the Wolffian ducts and the cloaca into male internal and external genitalia.
Male vs. Female Development
Describe the function of the SRY Gene
SRY proteins interact with gonad cells and activate the necessary genes to guide their development into testes.
Explain CAIS
Genetic disorder where the SRY gene is present on the Y chromosome and it produces a normal protein. The problem is that the body doesn't recognize the testosterone due to a faulty or missing protein receptor. The individual will have a genotype of a male and a phenotype of a female.
- Promotes breast development
- Reduces body hair
- Regulates menstrual cycle
- Promotes ovulation

- Reduces breast development
- Promotes body and facial hair
- Increases mass and strength
- Promotes sqyare lower jaw

Instead of equally dividing a pair of chromosomes with one each going to a different gamete, both chromosomes end up in the same sperm or egg
Infertile, webnecked (XO) female

Infertile, long limb physique (XXY) male

Fertile (XXX) male

Fertile (XXX) female
Turner Syndrome

Kleinfelter Syndrome


Triple X Syndrome
All begin their lives as a male (Males turn into females)

All begin their lives as females (Females turn into males)
Protandry Vs. Protogyny
The Differences in physical appearance between males and females of some species such as ibexes and peacocks is known as ______.
Sexual dimorphism
Female reproductive organs responsible for egg production are _____, while in males, the organs responsible for egg production are _____.
In the prescence of estrogen, the internal female genitalia are formed from a set of tubes known as _____.
Mullerian ducts
Despite being genetically XY, people with mutated genes for testosterone receptors develop as females, and condition known as _____.
Steroid hormones are produced from a fatty precursor commonly found in the cell membrane known as _____.
Trisomy 21, a condition when an individual has three copies of chromosome 21 due to a nondisjunctional event, is more commonly known as ____
Down's Syndrome
In turner syndrome, nondisjuntion results in an individual with the sex chromosome compliment of _____.
In Kleinfelter syndrome, as a result of nondisjunciton, an individual has a sex chromosome complimentation of _____.
In crocodiles, sex determination is dependant upon incubation environment _____.
The type of sequential sex determination where all organisms start life male and a breeding female is replaced by a male changing sex is known as_____.
In a male embryo, what hormone primarily drives development of the reproductive system? Which primative structures develop further and what structures do they ultimately become?
Testosterone stimulates the development of the Wolffian ducts and the coaca into male internal and external genitalia. They become the corpora cavernose, urethra, prostate, and seminal vesciles, penis and scrotum.
Marilyn Seville is XY but developed as a female despite a functional SRY gene. Which gene is mutated in her case and how does this result in female developement?
Her body does not recognize the testosterone. There was a mutation of the testosterone receptor. She never developed a uterus and having children is impossible.
Which hormone determines female secondary sexual characteristics and list 3 of those characteristics.
Estrogen determines female secondary sexual characteristics. The three characteristics are estradiol, estriol, and estrone.
What is nondisjunction and what type of chromosomal abnormalities does it result in when it occurs? How is this important to Down's Syndrome?
Nondisjuntion is instead of equally dividing a pair of chromosomes with one each going to a different gamete, both chromosomes end up in the same egg or sperm. Abnormalities may include infertility, webbed neck, and long limb physique. Nondisjuntion commonly affect chromosome 21, causing 3 chromosomes 21, trisomy 21. Down's syndrome results from trisomy 21.
Kleinfelter and Turner syndromes result from nondisfuntion. What are the sex chromosomal make ups of a person with each condition. Are people with these conditions fertile?
Turner syndrome is an individual who has an XO Sex Chromosomal make up. In Kleinfelter syndrome the individual has XXY sex chromosomal make up. In both syndromes the individual is infertile.
What is protogyny? Explain using the sex determination process of wrasses.
All wrasses begin their lives as females. Wrasses lay their eggs, the males fertilize all eggs in his territory. When the male dies, one female will quickly claim his territory. With in 2 weeks, she will develop a blue head, convert her ovaries into testes, and start to produce sperm. Protogyny=females turn into males.