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48 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Recieve information and convey messages to each other and to muscles and glands
smaller than neurons, they perform a number of other tasks
Psysiological Explanation
Explanation for behavior: relates a behavior to the activity of the brain and other organs
Ontogenetic Explanation
Explanation for behavior: describes the development of a structure or a behavior
Evolutionary Explanation
Explanation for behavior: examines a structure or a behavior in terms of evolutionary history
Fuctional Explanation
Explanation for behavior: describes why a structure or behavior evolved as it did
Belief that mind and body are different kinds of substance that exist independently, but somehow interact
Belief that the universe consists of only one kind of existence (3 parts: materialism, mentalism, and indentity position)
Subpart of monism: belief that only the mind really exists
Identity position
Subpart to monism: view that mental processes are the same thing as certain brain processes, but in different terms
Proteins that act as biological catalysts that regulate chemical reactions in the body
Separates the inside of the cell from the outside environment. It is composed of 2 layers of fat molecules. Selectivly permeable, but lets some molecules in through protein channels.
Structure that contains the chromosomal information (DNA)
Structure that performs metabolic activities. It needs "fuel" and oxygen to function.
Endoplasmic Reticulum
Network of thin tubes that transportnewly synthesized protiens to other locations
Sites at which the cell synthesizes new protein molecules (some float freely, others are attached to the endoplasmic reticulum)
Motor Neuron
Recieves excitation from other neurons and conducts impulses from its soma in the spinal cord to muscle or gland cells
Branching fibers. Their surface is lined with synaptic receptors. It recieves information from other neurons
Dendritic Spines
Short outgrowths that increase the surface area of the dendrites. Increased surface area = more info processed
Cell Body/Soma
COntains the nucleus, nucleolus, ribosomes, mitochondria, etc. Much metabolic work occurs here.
Thin fiber used as the information sender or the neuron. It conveys messages to other neurons, glands, and muscles.
Presynaptic Terminals
Swellings at the tips of axon branches, axon releases chemicals here.
Afferent Axon
Brings information into a structure
Efferent Axon
Brings information away from structure
Kind of glia: Removes waste, viruses, fungi, and other microorganisms
Radial Glia
Guide the migration of neurons and the growth of their axons and dendrites during embryonic development
Blood-Brain Barrier
Mechanism that keeps most chemicals out of the vertebrate. Most drugs reach the brain because the dissolve into fats
Active Transport
A protein-mediated process that expends energy to pump chemicals from the blood into the brain
Electrical gradient
Difference in electrical charge between the inside and the outside of the cell (brain)
Resting Potential
Difference in voltage in a resting neuron
Sodium-Potassium pump
Protein complex that repeatedly transports 3 sodium ions out of the cell while drawing 2 potassium ions in.
Concentration gradient
Difference in distribution of ions across the membrane
Use observations to infer things about science
E.O. Wilson
Famous scientist, "founder" of sociobiology. Ex-why do men and women behave differently?
Using knowledge of behavior and cognitive observations to explain biology (opposite of reductionism)
Red, green, and blue make up every color for TV and for the human eye
Opproment Process
(red & green) (blue & yellow) (black & white) Colors go together, if you stare at one and then look at a blank surface the opposite color will appear on the surface
Subpart to monism: I dont know anything, I may not even exist
Subpart of monism: belief that everything that exists is material or physical. Things you can see and feel are "real"
(most bio psychologists are materialists)
The "juice" in the cell
place at which communication between neurons occurs
Myelin Sheath
Covers and insulates the axon. Helps the signals to move faster
Schwann Cells
Protects axon by producing the myelin sheath
Kind of glia: wrap around the presynaptic terminals of several axons. Takes in chemicals and releases them back to axons-helps synchronize activity of axons. Also remove waste material. Forms part of the blood-brain barrier
Type of glia that attaches to Schwann Cells
Sensory Neuron
Specialized to be highly sensitive to a particular type of stimulation. Ends in the skin
Nodes of Ranvier
interruptions in the axon's myelin sheath, action potentials occur here
Meaning a difference in electrical charge between two locations