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233 Cards in this Set

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Bacteria that reduce nitrates to nitrites or nitrogen gas; most are found in soil.
denitrifying bacteria
are natural cell-signaling proteins produced by the cells of the immune system of most vertebrates in response to challenges such as viruses, parasites and tumor cells. Interferons belong to the large class of glycoproteins known as cytokines.
Interferons (IFNs)
WHAT JOINS 2 SISTER CHROMATIDS IN A REPLICATED CHROMOSOME?
CENTROMERES
THE VOLUME OF GAS THAT IS AVAILABLE TO THE ALVEOLAR SURFACE IN TH LUNG PER MINUTE.
ALVEOLAR VENTILATION
These die in presence of oxygen due to the absence of the enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase which would convert the lethal superoxide formed in their cells due to the presence of oxygen. Instead of oxygen, obligate anaerobes use alternate electron acceptors for respiration such as sulfate, nitrate, iron, manganese, mercury, and carbon monoxide.
Obligate (strict) anaerobes
WHAT IS INVOLVED IN BONE RESORPTION?
OSTEOCLASTS
WHAT HELPS FORM BONES?
OSTEOBLASTS
Aids in the quick and accurate transmission of electrical current carrying data from one nerve cell to the next. Surrounds only the axon of a neuron.
Myelin
Supply the myelin for peripheral neurons.
Schwann cells
Supply myelin to those of the central nervous system.
Oligodendrocytes
which heterozygous alleles are both expressed, resulting in a combined phenotype. Examples: In cross-pollination experiments between red and white snapdragon plants, the resulting offspring are pink.
Intermediate inheritance
WHAT ARE 2 MAIN SOURCES OF GENETIC VARIATION AFFECTED BY NATURAL SELECTION?
MUTATIONS & RECOMBINATION OF GENES THROUGH SEXUAL REPRODUCTION.
COMPONENTS OF IMMUNOLOGY:
BLOOD & CERTAIN ORGANS.
occurs when particular genetic loci or alleles for genes are inherited jointly. Genetic loci on the same chromosome are physically connected and tend to stay together during meiosis, and are thus genetically linked. Alleles for genes on different chromosomes are usually not linked,
Genetic linkage
Are cells of the immune system defending the body against both infectious disease and foreign materials. Five different and diverse types exist, but they are all produced and derived from a multipotent cell in the bone marrow known as a hematopoietic stem cell. They are found throughout the body, including the blood and lymphatic system
White blood cells (WBCs), or leukocytes
are the white blood cells that protect the body by ingesting harmful foreign particles, bacteria, & dead or dying cells. They are essential for fighting infections, and for subsequent immunity.
Phagocytes
Is an organ consisting of many types of cells. are found all through the body, and act as filters or traps for foreign particles. They contain white blood cells. Thus they are important in the proper functioning of the immune system.
Lymph node
The main function is to provide an area for T lymphocyte maturation, and is vital in protecting against autoimmunity.
Thymus
it has three primary functions: 1) Removal and destruction of old, aged red blood cells, 2) Synthesis of antibodies in the white pulp, and 3) Removal of antibody-coated bacteria and antibody-coated blood cells from the circulation
Spleen
Protects the blood stream. Also invovled in removing RBC.
Spleen
THE SITE WHERE ALL BLOOD CALLS ARE MADE. (BOTH RBC & WBC).
BONE MARROW
THE 2 MAIN COMPONENTS OF NONSPECIFIC DEFENSES:
BARRIERS & MECHANISMS
THE FIRST LINE OF DEFENSE (SKIN, MUCUS LINING, STOMACH ACID, GI TRACT, RESPIRATORY).
BARRIERS
THE SECOND LINE OF DEFENSE (PHAGOCYTOSIS, INFLAMMATION, FEVER, INTERFERON)
MECHANISMS
THE THIRD LINE OF DEFENSE, INVOLVES REGOGNITION & MEMORY.
SPECIFIC DEFENSES
CARRY OUT THE CELL MEDIATED RESPOPNCE. PRODUCE CYTOKINES.
T-CELLS
ACTIVATE OTHER T-CELLS, B-CELLS, MACROPHAGES AND NK CELLS.
HELPER T-CELLS
SHUT DOWN OTHER CELLS.
SUPPRESSOR T-CELLS
KILLS VIRUS INFECTED OR CANCER CELLS.
CYTOTOXIC T-CELLS
THESE CELLS PRODUCE ANTIBODIES.
B-CELLS
WHAT ARE THE 5 CLASSES OF ANTIBODIES:
IgA
IgG
IgD
IgE
IgM
BIND TO FOREIGN MATERIALS OR CELLS AND TRIGGER THEIR DISTRUCTION OR REMOVAL.
ANTIBODIES
The basic unit of genetic material. A defined portion of a chromosome that encodes for a particular trait or substance (hair color, blood type, etc.)
Genes
THE DIFFERENT FORMS A PARTICULAR GENE CAN OCCUR IN (BROWN, BLUE, GREAN EYES) YOU HAVE 2 COPIES OF EACH GENE ( MOM & DAD) SO THERES TWO POTENTIAL ___ FOR EACH.
ALLELES
2 IDENTICAL ALLELES FOR A PARTICULAR GENE (AA OR aa).
HOMOZYGOUS
2 DIFFERENT ALLELES FOR A PARTICULAR GENE (Aa)
HETEROZYGOUS
TRAITS THAT WILL ALWAYS BE EXPRESSED.
DOMINANT TRAIT
WILL BE MASKED BY A DOMINANT GENE, CAN ONLY BE EXPRESSED IF THERE IS NO DOMINANT GENE PRESENT.
RECESSIVE TRAIT
NEITHER TRAITS MASKS THE OTHER SO BOTH ARE EXPRESSED.
CODOMINANT
(EG. AB BLOOD TYPES)
THE MAKEUP OF THE GENES-WHICH 2 ALLELES ARE PRESENT.
GENOTYPE
WHAT ACTUALLY GETS EXPRESSED-WHAT YOU "SEE"
PHENOTYPE
BLOOD TYPE WITH A ANTIGEN ON RED BLOOD CELLS (RBC). CANNOT RECEIVE B (BUT CAN FROM A OR O) IT IS DOMINANT, (AA OR/ AO)
BLOOD TYPE A
B ANTIGENS ON RBC'S. CANNOT RECEIVE A. IT IS DOMINANT (BB OR/ BO).
BLOOD TYBE B
BOTH A AND B ANTIGENS ON RBC'S. CAN RECEIVE FROM EVERYONE (A, B, O). CODOMINANT GENES, HAS AN AB GENOTYPE.
BLOOD TYPE AB
CAN ONLY RECEIVE FROM O. NEITHER A NOR B ANTIGENS. UNIVERSAL DONOR. RECESSIVE, HOMOZYGOUS (OO)
BLOOD TYPE O
IT IS A DOMINANT GENE.
Rh
Individuals who are homozygous dominant (DD) or heterozygous (Dd) are what blood type?
Rh+.
Those who are homozygous recessive (dd) are what blood type? (i.e., they do not have the key Rh antigens).
Rh-
XX
FEMALE
XY
MALE
2 X LINKED DISORDER ARE?
HEMOPHILIA
&
COLOR BLINDNESS
THE MOST COMMON X LINKED DISORDER- A DEFECT IN CLOTTING PROTEINS. (c) IT'S A RARE BLEEDING DISORDER.
HEMOPHILIA
disorder means two copies of an abnormal gene must be present in order for the disease or trait to develop.
Autosomal recessive
Genes come in pairs.____means both genes in a pair must be defective to cause disease. People with only one defective gene in the pair are considered carriers. However, they can pass the abnormal gene to their children.
Recessive inheritance
An autosomal recessive disorder, defect in the production of melanin.
ALBINISM
An autosomal recessive disorder, defect in the gene making hemoglobin.
Sickle Cell Anemia
An autosomal recessive disorder, Enzyme defect leads to buildup of phenylalanine in the blood stream & neurological problems
PKU
(PHENYLKETONURIA)
ENZYME DEFECT CAUSES THE PRODUCTION OF ABNORMAL MUCUS WHICH CAUSES PROBLEMS IN BOTH THE RESPIRATORY & GI TRACTS.
CYSTIC FIBROSIS (CF)
BECAUSE THE GENE IS DOMINANT, YOU ONLY NEED ONE COPY TO HAVE THE DISORDER, THEREFORE JUST ONE PARENT NEEDS TO BE A CARRIER, NOT BOTH.
AUTOSOMAL DOMINANT
AN INVARIABLY FATAL NEUROLOGICAL DISORDER WHICH DOESN'T SHOW UP UNTIL 30 OR 40 YEARS OF AGE, AFTER THE PERSON HAS HAD CHILDREN AND POSSIBLY PASSED ON THE GENE.
HUNTINGTON'S DISEASE.
EXTRA FINGERS AND TOES
POLYDACTYLY
WHERE ONE OR MORE CHROMOSOME PAIRS DON''T SEPARATE DURING MITOSIS OR MEIOSIS. LEADS TO CELLS HAVING TO MANY OR TO FEW CHROMOSOMES.
NONDISJUNCTION
REFERS TO MORE THAN THE USUAL AMOUNT OF A PARTICULAR CHROMOSOME.
POLYPLOIDY
FORM OF POLYPLOIDY, WHEN THERE ARE 3 COPIES OF THAT CHROMOSOME RATHER THAN 2.
DOWN SYNDROME
(TRISOMY 21)
XXY OR XYY
ONLY ONE COPY OF THE CHROMOSOME.
ANUPLOIDY
(EX: GIRLS WITH ONLY ONE X CHROMOSOME: TURNERS SYNDROME).
A NUCLEIC ACID COMPOSED OF 4 BASES OR NUCLEOTIDES.
DNA
(Deoxyribonucleic acid)
WHAT ARE THE 4 BASES OF DNA?
A is for adenine
G is for guanine
C is for cytosine
T is for thymine
THE TWO STRANDS OF DNA ARE CONNECTED BY?
HYDROGEN BONDING
WHAT ARE THE BASE PAIRS IN DNA?
The purine adenine (A) always pairs with the pyrimidine thymine (T). the pyrimidine cytosine (C) always pairs with the purine guanine (G)
WHICH ARE PURINES?
Adenine & Guanine
WHICH ARE PYRIMIDINES?
Cytosine & Thymine
IWHAT ARE THE 4 BASES IN RNA?
Adenine
Guanine
Cytosine
Guanine
WHAT ARE THE BASE PAIRINGS IN RNA?
A & U

G & C
are best-known for their role in DNA replication, in which it reads an intact DNA strand as a template and uses it to synthesize the new strand. It uses a magnesium ion for catalytic activity.
DNA polymerases
PROTEINS ARE STRINGS OF...
AMINO ACIDS
THE INFO THAT DETERMINES WHICH AMINO ACID GOES WHERE IS STORED WHERE?
DNA MOLECULE
A SERIES OF 3 BASES IS CALLED A...
CODON
WHEN ONE STRAND OF DNA MOLECULE IS READ TO PRODUCE MESSENGER RNA.
Transcription
THE CODONS IN THE mRNA ARE "READ" BY TRANSFER RNA TO PLACE THE APPROPRIATE AMINO ACIDS IN THEIR PLACE.
TRANSLATION
REFERS TO A PERMANENT CHANGE IN THE STRUCTURE OF DNA WHICH IS PASSED ON TO THE OFFSPRING OF THE EFFECTED CELL.
MUTATION
RADIATION AND CHEMICALS ARE THE MOST COMMON CAUSE, VIRUSES MAY CAUSE THIS TOO.
MUTATION
A SINGLE BASE CHANGED-THIS LEADS TO A CHANGE IN THE CODON WHICH IN TURN, LEADS TO THE PRODUCTION OF A DIFFERENT AMINO ACID- THE SENSE (MEANING) OF THE CODON HAS BEEN CHANGED.
MISSENSE
A SINGLE BASE CHANGED-THIS LEADS TO A CHANGE IN THE CODON SO THAT IT BECOMES A STOP CODON WHICH STOPS THE SYNTHESIS OF PROTEIN AT THAT POINT IN THE mRNA.
NONSENSE
THE WAY THE CODONS IN THE mRNA ARE READ IS MESSED UP BY ADDING AN EXTRA BASE OR REMOVING ONE.
FRAME-SHIFT
AN EXTRA BASE IS INSERTED INTO THE DNA MOLECULE- THIS THROWS OFF THE CODON IT ENDS UP IN & ALSO ALL THOSE DOWNSTREAM FROM THAT POINT.
INSERTION
WHEN A BASE IS DELETED FROM THE DNA MOLECULE- THIS THROWS OFF THE CODON IT ENDS UP IN & ALSO ALL THOSE DOWNSTREAM FROM THAT POINT.
DELETION
REFERS TO THE TRANSFER OF GENETIC INFO FROM ONE ORGANISM (THE DONOR) TO ANOTHER (THE RECIPIENT)
RECOMBINATION.
DNA FROM A DEAD BACTERIA WHICH AHS BROKKEN APART IS TAKEN UP THROUGH THE CELL WALL OF THE RECIPIENT BACTERIA & INTEGRATED INTO ITS OWN DNA
TRANSFORMATION
A VIRUS CARRIES GENETIS INFO FROM ONE BACTERIA TO ANOTHER
TRANSDUCTION
Genetic elements that move from one place to another within a chromosome.
TRANSPOSONS
THE STUDY OF THE RELATIONSHIP OF LIVING THINGS WITH EACH OTHER & WITH THEIR ENVIRONMENT.
ECOLOGY
THE THIN LAYER OF LIFE ON THE EARTH.
BIOSPHERE
REGIONS WITHIN THE BIOSPHERE-MADE UP OF BOTH LIVING (BIOTIC) & NONLIVING (ABIOTIC) COMPONENTS.
ECOSYSTEM
THE LIVING PART OF AN ECOSYSTEM
COMMUNITY
ALL THE MEMBERS OF A PARTICULAR ORGANISM IN A COMMUNITY. (EX: ALL THE CORALS IN A CORAL REEF)
POPULATION
A SINGLE ORGANISM
INDIVIDUAL
PHOTOSYNTHETIC ORGANISMS.
PRODUCERS
EAT PRODUCERS OR EACH OTHER- PROTOZOANS & ANIMALS
CONSUMERS
BREAK DOWN DEAD PRODUCERS & CONSUMERS. FUNGI & BACTERIA
DECOMPOSERS
NAME THE FOOD CHAIN ORDER.
PRODUCER->PRIMARY CONSUMER (HERBIVORE)->SECONDARY CONSUMER (CARNIVORE)->TERTIARY CONSUMER-> QUATERNARY CONSUMER
WHAT LEVEL A BEING IS AT ON THE FOOD CHAIN
TROPHIC LEVEL
NAME 2 OF THE MAJOR NUTRIENT CYCLES...
CARBON CYCLE
&
NITROGEN CYCLE
WHERE LAND AND WATER COME TOGETHER.
LITTORAL ZONE
IS THE BOTTOM OF THE OCEAN.
BENTHIC ZONE
IS THE DEEP OPEN OCEAN.
PELAGIC ZONE
REFERS TO 2 ORGANISMS LIVING TOGETHER IN SOME SORT OF RELATIONSHIP.
SYMBIOSIS
BOTH BENEFIT IN A SYMBIOTIC RELATIONSHIP.
MUTUALISM
WHEN ONE ORGANISM BENEFITS AND THE OTHER IS NOT AFFECTED IN A SYMBIOTIC RELATIONSHIP.
COMMENSALISM
WHEN ONE ORGANISM BENEFITS AND THE OTHER IS HARMED IN A SYMBIOTIC RELATIONSHIP.
PARASITISM
THE ROLE A PARTICULAR ORGANISM PLAYS IN A COMMUNITY.
ECOLOGICAL NICHES
SURVIVAL OF THE FITTEST
NATURAL SELECTION
TERM THAT REFERS TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF NEW SPECIES, USUALLY DUE TO NATURAL SELECTION.
SPECIATION
A GROUP OF ORGANISMS THAT CAN BE BREED WITH EACH OTHER BUT NOT MEMBERS OF ANY OTHER GROUP.
SPECIES
THE BRANCH OF BIOLOGY THAT DEALS WITH THE CLASSIFICATION OF ORGANISMS.
TAXONOMY
THE NAMING OF ALL ORGANISMS WITH GENUS AND SPECIES.
BINOMIAL NOMENCLATURE
NONVASCULAR PLANTS INCLUDE...
ALGAE
&
BRYOPHYTES (MOSSES)
VASCULAR PLANTS INCLUDE...
FERNS
GYNOSPERMS
ANGIOSPERMS
TISSUES OF VASCULAR PLANTS:
XYLEM
PHLOEM
WOOD
TRANSPORTS WATER
XYLEM
TRANSPORTS NUTRIENTS
PHLOEM
STRUCTURAL SUPPORT; ALSO HAVE EPIDERMIS FOR COVERING.
WOOD
INCLUDES CORAL, JELLY FISH, ANEMONES, ETC. ALL ARE VERY SIMPLE MARINE ORGANISMS.
CNIDARIANS
ALSO KNOWN AS NEMATODES.
ROUND WORMS
A LARGE DIVERSE GROUP, MEMBERS RANGE FROM CLAMS TO SNAILS TO SQUIDS.
MULLUSCS
SEGMENTED WORMS, THE MOST COMPLEX GROUP OF WORMS, INCLUDES EARTHWORMS & LEECHES.
ANNELID WORMS
SINGLE LARGEST GROUP, INCLUDES INSECTS, ARACHNIDS, & CRUSTACEANS. FEATURES INCLUDE SEGMENTATION, EXOSKELETON, METAMORPHOSIS.
ARTHROPODS
ALL MARINE-AN UNUSUAL GROUP-INCLUDES STARFISH & SEA URCHINS, RADIAL SYMMETRY, WATER VASCULAR SYSTEM.
ECHINODERMS
BELONGS TO A GROUP KNOWN AS CHORDATES-DORSAL NERVE CORD, A NOTOCHORD, A TAIL, & SEGMENTATION.
VERTEBRATES
THE FERTILIZED EGG UNDERGOES CLEAVAGE TO BECOME A MULTICELLULAR EMBRYO. LATER THE CELLS DIFFERENTIATE & THE EMBRYO ORGANIZES INTO 3 TISSUES OR GERM LAYERS.
PROCESS OF EMBRYOLOGY
3 TISSUES OR GERM LAYERS.
ECTODERM
MESODERM
ENDODERM
FORMS MUSCLE IN MOST ORGAN SYSTEMS.
MESODERM
GIVES RISE TO THE LINING OF THE DIGESTIVE TRACT & SOME ASSOCIATED STRUCTURES.
ENDODERM
GIVES RISE TO STRUCTURES SUCH AS THE NERVOUS SYSTEM & THE OUTER LAYERS OF THE SKIN.
ECTODERM
BASIC UNTI OF BIOLOGY:
THE CELL
THE 3 MAIN COMPONENTS OF A CELL:
CELL MEMBRANE (PLASMA MEMBRANE)
CYTOPLASM
ORGANELLES
WHAT ARE THE FUNCTIONS OF THE CELL MEMBRANE?
HOLDS THE INTERNAL CONTENTS OF THE CELL & REGULATES WHAT GETS INTO & OUT OF THE CELL.
THE BASIC STRUCTURE IS 2 LAYERS OF PHOSPHOLIPIDS. A FLEXIBLE STRUCTURE REFERED TO AS THE FLUID MOSAIC MODEL.
PHOSPHOLIPID BILAYER
AN INTEGRAL PART OF THE CELL MEMBRANE-KEEPS IT FLEXIBLE.
CHOLESTEROL
FUNCTIONS INCLUDE ACTING AS RECEPTORS, ACTING AS CHANNELS FOR IONS & OTHER MATERIALS TO ACROSS THE MEMBRANE.
Membrane protein
REFERS TO THE TENDENCY OF MOLECULES TO SPREAD FROM AREAS OF HIGH CONCENTRATION TO AREAS OF LOW CONCENTRATION. DRIVEN BY THE CONCENTRATION GRADIENT.
DIFFUSION
EQUAL SALT CONCENTRATIONS INSIDE & OUTSIDE THE CELL.
ISOTONIC
The diffusion of water through a semi-permeable membrane, from a higher water potential (low concentrate solution) to a low water potential(highly concentrated solution), down a concentration gradient.
OSMOSIS
SALT CONCENTRATIONS OUTSIDE THE CELL ARE LESS THAN THOSE INSIDE THE CELL. WATER MOVER INTO THE CELL.
HYPOTONIC
SALT CONCENTRATIONS OUTSIDE THE CELL ARE GREATER THAN THOSE INSIDE THE CELL. WATER MOVES OUT OF THE CELL.
HYPERTONIC
INVOLVES TRANSMEMBRANE PROTEINS ACTING AS "PUMPS"-ATP IS REQUIRED-USED FOR BRING MATERIALS INTO THE CELL OR PUMPING OUT MATERIALS SUCH AS IONS, TO MAINTAIN UNEQUAL CONCENTRATIONS.
ACTIVE TRANSPORT
BRINGING SOMETHING INTO THE CELL ACROSS THE MEMBRANE.
ENDOCYTOSIS
CELLS ENGULF LIQUID MATERIAL.
PINOCYTOSIS
A METHOD THAT ALLOWS THE CELL TO BRING IN SPECIFIC MATERIALS THAT IT NEEDS.
RECEPTOR-MEDIATED ENDOCYTOSIS
CELL ENGULFS SOLID MATERIAL, BRINGS IT THROUGH THE CELL MEMBRANE & BREAKS IT DOWN.
PHAGOCYTOSIS
SOMETHING FORM THE INSIDE OF THE CELL IS RELEASED TO THE OUTSIDE.
EXOCYTOSIS
FUNCTION IS TO MAKE PROTEIN, VERY SMALL, MADE OF 2 CIRCULAR SUBUNITS-FOUND FREE IN THE CYTOPLASM OR ATTACHED TO THE ER.
RIBOSOMES
COVERED WITH RIBOSOMES, MAKES PROTEIN
ROUGH ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM
MAKES LIPIDS
SMOOTH ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM
A "STACK OF FOLDED INTERCONNECTED MEMBRANES-START AT THE EDGE OF THE NUCLEAR MEMBRANE.
ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM
(ER)
A SERIES OF STACKED, FOLDED MEMBRANES (SIMILAR TO BUT SMALLER THAN THE ER).
GOLGI APPARATUS
ADDING SUGARS TO MOLECULES & PACKAGING MATERIAL FOR MOVEMENT TO ANOTHER PART OF THE CELL OR RELEASE FROM CELL- THE MATERIAL IS PLACED IN A VESICLE & THE N MOVED ELSEWHERE.
GOLGI APPARATUS FUNCTION
SMALL ROUNDED MEMBRANE-BOUND STRUCTURE. CONTAINS DIGESTIVE ENZYMES WHICH BREAKS DOWN THINGS INGESTED BY THE CELL.
LYSOSOME
A MEMBRANE BOUND BUBBLE WITHIN THE CELL THAT STORES SOMETHING.
VACUOLES
CONTAIN HIGHLY INFOLDED INTERNAL MEMBRANES CALLED CRISTAE. PRODUCE CELLULAR ENERGY (ATP).
MITOCHONDRIA
THEY ARE SITES FOR METABOLIC ENZYMES TO ATTACH & FUNCTION.
CRISTAE
SPECIALIZED STRUCTURE FOR CARRYING OUT PHOTOSYNTHESIS-CONTAIN CHLOROPHYLL
CHLOROPLASTS
A GROUP OF DIFFERENT PROTEIN STRANDS-MICROTUBULES, MICROFILAMENTS, & INTERMEDIATE FILAMENTS.
CYTOSKELETON
FUNCTIONS OF THE CYTOSKELETON:
AN INTERNAL SKELETON PROVIDING STRUCTURE, MOVEMENT OF MATERIAL FROM PLACE TO PLACE, & MOVEMENT OF THE CELL ITSELF.
A MEMBRANE THAT SURROUNDS THE CHROMOSOMES-IN IT ARE NUCLEAR PORES.
NUCLEAR MEMBRANES
SMALL HOLES THAT ALLOW MATERIAL TO PASS FROM THE NUCLEUS TO THE CYTOPLASM.
NUCLEAR PORES
A STRAND OF DNA & PROTEIN-EXISTS IN A HIGHLY COILED STATE-SUPERCOILED.
CHROMOSOME
OCCURS IN THE BODY CELLS (SOMATIC CELLS)-IT IS THE REPPLICATION OF THE NUCLEUS.
MITOSIS
PHASES OF MITOSIS:
PROPHASE
METAPHASE
ANAPHASE
TELOPHASE
INTERPHASE
THE CELL PREPARES TO DIVIDE: THE NUCLEAR MEMBRANE BREAKS DOWN & THE SPINDLE APPARATUS FORMS.
PROPHASE (MITOSIS)
THE 2 SETS OF CHROMOSOMES LINE UP IN THE MIDDLE OF THE CELL.
METAPHASE (MITOSIS)
THE 2 SETS OF CHROMOSOMES MOVE APART TO OPPOSITE ENDS.
ANAPHASE (MITOSIS)
THE NUCLEUS REFORMS & THE SPINDLE APPARATUS BREAKS DOWN.
TELOPHASE (MITOSIS)
THE PERIOD BETWEEN CELL MITOSIS.
INTERPHASE (MITOSIS)
A CELL SPENDS MOST OF ITS TIME IN WHAT PHASE OF THE CELL CYCLE?
GROWTH (G) OR DNA DUPLICATION (S).
REPLICATION OF THE REST OF THE CELL (MITOSIS IS ONLY THE NUCLEUS)-CYTOPLASM & ORGANELLES.
CYTOKINESIS
BUILDING THINGS UP FROM SMALLER COMPONENTS OR SUBUNITS DURING CELL METABOLISM.
ANABOLISM
BREAKING MOLECULES DOWN DURING CELL METABOLISM.
CATABOLISM
CARRY OUT THE METABOLIC REACTIONS IN THE CELL.
ENZYMES
THEY LOWER THE ENERGY NEEDED FOR THE REACTION TO HAPPEN.
CATALYST
THE SUBSTANCE THE ENZYME ACTS UPON IS KNOWN AS THE...
SUBSTRATE
EXTRA PIECES NEEDED BY SOME ENZYMES TO FUNCTION.
COENZYMES (ORGANIC)
&
COFACTORS (INORGANIC)
The absence or presence of the inhibitor at this second binding site activates or deactivates the enzyme, presumably by changing the conformation of the enzyme so that the active site is made available or unavailable to the substrate.
FEEDBACK INHIBITION
ITS FUNCTION IS TO TRANSFER ENERGY OR SHORT TERM STORAGE.
ATP
EXPLAIN THE OVERALL REACTION OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS:
CO2 AND H2O ARE THE INPUT AND O2 IS THE WASTE PRODUCT.
THE MOST IMPORTANT PATHWAY INVOLVES THE BREAKDOWN OF GLUCOSE TO RELEASE ENERGY. IN THE OVERALL REACTION, GLUCOSE (6 C SUGAR) AND O2 ARE INPUT & CO2 AND H2O ARE THE WASTE PRODUCTS.
AEROBOLIC RESPIRATION
Is in the absence of air
AEROBIC RESPIRATION
Is the release of energy from glucose or another organic substrate in the presence of Oxygen.
Aerobic respiration
THE FIRST STEP IN MAKING ATP, GLUCOSE IS BROKEN INTO TWO 3-C ACIDS- DURING THIS PROCESS, 2 ATP'S ARE MADE & ALSO SOME PROTON/ ELECTRON PAIRS.
GLYCOLYSIS
WHEN THE TWO 3 CARBON MOLECULES MADE IN GLYCOLYSIS WILL BE COMPLETELY BROKEN & RELEASED AS CO2 & 2 ATP'S PRODUCED.
KREBS CYCLE
(CITRIC ACID CYCLE)
WHERE THE MAJORITY OF THE ATP IS MADE. A PROTON (H+) IS ADDED TO O AND WATER IS MADE AS A WASTE PRODUCT.
OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION
(ELECTRON TRANSPORT)
A TYPE OF ANAEROBIC RESPIRATION-THE PROCESS INVOLVES GLYCOLYSIS & A FEW ADDITIONAL STEPS. IT DOESN'T GO TO THE KREBS CYCLE.
FERMENTATION
2 ATP'S IS THE RESULT VARIOUS ORGANIC
FERMENTATION
These reactions do not depend directly upon the presence of light.This cycle occurs in the stroma and requires 18 ATP's, 12 NADPH's, and CO2. It is the opposite of the citric acid cycle in that the citric acid cycle produces ATP and NADP and glucose is broken down to make CO2. This uses ATP, NADPH, and CO2 is used to make glucose.
The Calvin Benson cycle
produces ATP and NADP and glucose is broken down to make CO2.
the citric acid cycle
Is a process certain organisms use to produce energy, akin to photosynthesis, but without the utilization of sunlight. The energy comes from the oxidization (burning) of chemicals which seep up from the Earth's crust.
Chemosynthesis
Monosaccharides

C6 H12 O6
glucose
galactose
fructose
Disaccharides
* sucrose = glucose + fructose
* lactose = glucose + galactose
* maltose = glucose + glucose
Polysaccharides
Starch
Glycogen
Cellulose
What 2 things make a lipid?
Glycerol & Fatty Acids
It is a substance which is soluble in both oil and water,
An emulsifying agent
ENZYMES ______ ACTIVATION ENERGY.
DECREASE
NUCLEOTIDES ARE FOUND WHERE IN THE CELL?
NUCLEUS
HOW MANY KINGDOMS ARE THERE?
5
MONERANS
PROTISTS
FUNGI
PLANTS
ANIMALS
Typical Structure of Cell Membrane
Composed of protein and lipid (fat) molecules
Cell walls are made of specialized sugars called ____.
Cellulose
Those with a defined nucleus.
Eukaryotic
Those with no defined nucleus
Prokaryotic
They carry all of the information used to help a cell grow, thrive, and reproduce. They are made up of DNA.
Chromosomes
Segments of DNA in specific patterns are called ______. They make you who you are.
genes
Chromosomes are not always visible. They usually sit around uncoiled and as loose strands called ____.
chromatin
You will most likely find mRNA in the _____ with the DNA.
nucleus
tRNA is found in the _____.
Cytosol
When the chromosomes are visible, cells with two complete sets of chromosomes are called ______.
Diploids (46 in a human)
Most cells are diploid.
Cells with only one set are called ________.
(23 in a human) haploid cells
Haploids are most often found in cells involved in sexual reproduction such as a sperm or an egg. Haploid cells are created in cell division termed meiosis.
They are there to help the cell when it comes time to divide. They are put to work in both the process of mitosis and the process of meiosis. You will usually find them near the nucleus but they cannot be seen when the cell is not dividing.
centrioles
And what are centrioles made of?
Microtubules
are the protein builders or the protein synthesizers of the cell.
Ribosomes
They are organelles that act like a digestive system that takes in nutrients, breaks them down, and creates energy for the cell.
MITOCHONDRIA
The process of creating cell energy is known as ______.
cellular respiration
Are the food producers of the cell. They are only found in plant cells and some protists. They make sugars and starches.
Chloroplasts
functions as a packaging system. It does not work alone.
endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
Sacs of the ER called _____ store the complex molecules.
cisternae
It acts as a storage organelle. It is important in the creation and storage of steroids. It also stores ions in solution that the cell may need at a later time.
Smooth ER
When the protein is complete, it pinches off a vesicle. That vesicle, a small membrane bubble, can move to the cell membrane or the Golgi apparatus.
rough ER
Gathers simple molecules and combines them to make molecules that are more complex. It then takes those big molecules, packages them in vesicles, and either stores them for later use or sends them out of the cell. It is also the organelle that builds lysosomes
The Golgi complex
Might store food or any variety of nutrients a cell might need to survive. They can even store waste products so the rest of the cell is protected from contamination.
Vacuoles
hold enzymes that were created by the cell. The purpose of it is to digest things. They might be used to digest food or break down the cell when it dies.
Lysosomes
They h
old on to enzymes that require oxygen (oxidative enzymes).
Peroxisomes
rRNA occurs in the ____.
NUCLEOLUS
THE NET MOVEMENT FROM A REGION OF HIGHER CONCENTRATION TO A REGION OF LOWER CONCENTRATION.
SIMPLE DIFFUSION
THE DIFFUSION OF WATER FROM A LOWER SOLUTE CONCENTRATION TO HIGHER CONCENTRATION.
OSMOSIS
WHEN THE CYTOPLASM HAS A LOWER CONCENTRATION.
HYPERTONIC
WHERE DOES SPERM PRODUCTION OCCUR?
SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES