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50 Cards in this Set

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DNA is composed of...
nucleotides
The three parts of nucleotides are...
1. 5 Carbon Sugar-Deoxyribose
2. Phosphate Functional Group
3. Nitrogen containing base
DNA
There are 4 different nitrogen-containing bases (nucleotides) which are...
Thymine
Cytosine
Adenine
Guanine
DNA bases
What makes up the backbone of a DNA molecule?
Which is 5' and 3'?
Phosphate 5'
Sugar 3'
DNA backbones
What connects the bases of the backbone?
a hydrogen bond
DNA bases
Adenine can only bind with...
Thymine
A=T
DNA bases
Guanine can only bind with...
Cytosine
G=C
DNA bases
The term defining the fact that the backbones run in opposite directions is:
Anti-parallel
DNA
Replication results in DNA molecules that consist of one old strand and one new strand, this is called:
Semiconservative
DNA replication
The three steps (each catalyzed by a specific enzyme)in DNA replication are called:
1. DNA Helicose
2. DNA Polymerase
3. DNA Ligase
DNA Replication
This enzyme breaks the hydrogen bonds between the bases and the two strands of the molecule come apart...
DNA Helicase
1st enzyme in DNA rep.
This enzyme attaches free complementary nucleotides to the existing strands, they attach by hydrogen bonds...
DNA Polymerase
2nd enzyme in DNA rep.
This enzyme completes the bonds forming the backbone...
DNA Ligase
3rd enzyme in DNA rep.
Each chromosome is composed of __ DNA molecule/s
One
DNA
A ___ is just a piece of one DNA molecule
Gene
DNA
In ___ molecules of RNA are produced on the DNA templates in the ___
Transcription
Nucleus
Gene Expression
In ___ RNA molecules shipped from the nucleus to the cytoplasm are used as templates for protein synthesis, which occurs at the ____
Translation
Ribosomes
Gene Expression
The path from genes to proteins has __ steps
And they are...
Two
Transcription and Translation
Gene Expression
The base of RNA is
Uracil
Differences in RNA and DNA: Transcription
The base of DNA is
Thymine
Differences in RNA and DNA: Transcription
The noncoding portions that are snipped out during Transcription
Introns
Transcription Process
The coding regions that are spliced together to produece mRNA
Exons
Transcription Process
Mitosis and Meiosis are processes by which ____ divide
Nuclei
Mitosis or Meiosis...
Results in an exact copy of a cell
Mitosis
Mitosis or Meiosis
Mitosis or Meiosis...
Occurs only in somalic (body) cells
Mitosis
Mitosis or Meiosis...
Helps organisms grow, replace cells, and repair tissues
Mitosis
Mitosis or Meiosis...
Results in the halving of the DNA in a cell
Meiosis
Mitosis or Meiosis...
Only occurs in cells that produce gametes (germ cells)
Meiosis
Mitosis or Meiosis...
Produces gametes
Meiosis
When a cell is not dividing, each chromosome exists as a single DNA molecule wrapped around a protein, this is called...
Unduplicated Chromosome
Sister chromatids are held together by
a Centromere
Most of a cell's existance (about 90 percent) is spent in ___phase
Interphase
___ is the phase between cell divisions
Interphase
The first step of Mitosis
Prophase
The second step of Mitosis
Metaphase
The third step of Mitosis
Anaphase
The fourth step of Mitosis
Telophase
During ___, the nuclear membrane breaks down, and chromosomes become attached by the cytoskeleton to both sides of the cell...
Meiosis or Mitosis?
Prophase
Mitosis
In ___, the chromosomes get lined up in the middle of the cell...
Meiosis or Mitosis
Metaphase
Mitosis
In ___, the cytoskeleton fibers shorten, pull the sister chromatics apart and to the opposite sides of the cell
Meiosis or Mitosis
Anaphase
Mitosis
In ___, a nuclear membrane forms around each area of chromosomes, two nuclei have formed, and each nucleus has one chromatid from each of the chromosomes
Meiosis or Mitosis
Telophase
Mitosis
Meiosis or Mitosis can be clued as PMAT
Both
In ___, the nuclear membrane breaks down, homologous chromosomes attach to each other and exchange some genetic material (crossing over)
Mitosis or Meiosis
Prophase
Meiosis
In ___, the pairs line up in the middle of the cell
Mitosis or Meiosis
Metaphase
Meiosis
In ___, the cytoskeletal fibers shorten, pull the homologous chromosomes apart, and towards opposite sides of the cell
Mitosis or Meiosis
Anaphase
Meiosis
In ___, a nuclear membrane forms around each area of chromosomes, two nuclei are formed, each nucleas has one member of each homologous pair
Mitosis or Meiosis
Telophase
Meiosis
Crossing over- what and when?
Exchanging genetic material, and
Prophase of Meiosis
In letters, what would homozygous dominant look like
AA
In letters, what would heterozygous look like
Aa
In letters, what would homozygous recessive look like
aa