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217 Cards in this Set

  • Front
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atoms
elements of life, have a nucleus, protons/elections (atomic weight of 1, electrons
atomic weight
protons + nuetrons
elements of life
big 4- H C N O
molecules
compounds formed by interactions between complete/incomplete shells
inert
full shells
chemical bonding
occurs between reactive atoms
ionic bonding
type of chemical bonding- ions are atoms that have lost/gained electrons (now either pos or neg)
covalent bonding
type of chemical bonding- sharing electrons (bond of biological molecules)
polar vs nonpolar
covalent bonding
free radicals
molecules with one or more unpaired electrons in outer shell

cancer, alzheimers
antioxidants
neutralized free radicals (vitamins C and E)
hydrogen bond
type of chemical bond- partial changes on different parts of water molecules, produce weak attractive forces
water
interacts with other molecules, tends to stick together, supports acids bases or neutral conditions, moderates temp change, forms ice
carbon
can be organic (H) or inorganic (no H)
functional groups
attach to carbon backbone (glucose)
monomers
an organic molecule unto itself (glucose), covalently bond to other monomers to form polymers
polymers
made up of monomers
amino acids
made up of protein
nucleotides
made up of nucleic acid (dna rna)
ose
sugar
dehydration synthesis
monomer to monomer
hydrolisys
breaking down monomer bonds
biological molecules
carbs, lipids, proteins, nucleic acid
carbs
made up of C-H-O in 1-2-1 forms, primary use= energy
monosaccharides
carb- monomer- small simple sugar (glucose)
disaccharide
carb- small double sugar (sucrose)
polysaccharde
carb- no sugar but made up of glusoce (starch, chitin, cellulose, glycogen)
lipids
insoluble in water, energy storage molecules with water proof coverings on plants
fats
lipids- oils, waxes; energy and protection
saturated fats
solid at room temp, possess as many H atoms as possible
unsaturated fats
oil at room temp; dont posses as many H atoms
transfat
been shown to increase bad LDL cholesterol and lower good HDL cholesterol
waxes
chemically similar to fats, highly saturated but not digestible by most animals, form water proof covering, used for beehives
phospholipids
primary molecule of cellular membranes
steriods
consist of 4 carbon rings fused together, various functional groups attached to rings
cholesterol
cell membranes, liver bile, hormones, sex steroids (estrogen, testosterone)
proteins
diverse in structure, formed from 3 or more amino acids, formed by dehydration synthesis, 3+ polypeptides
covalent bond
peptide (chain <=50)
polypeptide
amino acid (chain >=50)
protein structure
exact type, position, and number of amino acids determine the structure and biological function of the protein (up to 4 levels of structure)
primary protein structure
amino acid sequence
secondary protein structure
helix and/or pleated
tertiary protein structure
folded secondary
quaternary protein structure
likes 2+ tertiary
nucleic acid
3 part structure- phosphate, base, deoxyribose nucleotide
polynucleotides
long chains of similar BUT NOT IDENTICAL monomers
deoxyribose nucleotide
phosphate, deoxyribose, 4 bases (adenine, thymine, gaunine, cytosine)
polynucleotides
2 chains linked at bases by hydrogen bonds, genetic code to make proteins
ribose nucleotides
monomers- contain ribose (4 bases- adenine, guanine, cytosine, uracil) single chain= rna
cell membrane
surrounds a cell, double layer of phospholipids, protein, cholesterol
phospholipids
basic building block of membranes
hydrophilic
head of phosphlipid
hydrophobic
end of phospholipid (tails together form a phospholipid bilayer
phospholipid bilayer
fluid
proteins
gate keepers, communicaters, chemically pass signals through membrane, act as cell ID tags
transport proteins
moves items in and out of cell (channel, carrier)
receptor proteins
when triggered, cause an action (specific responses when molecules in extra cellular fluid attach to them- chemical signal)
recognition proteins
call id tags, glycoproteins = protein + attached carbohydrate
cholestrol
stronger membrane, more flexible, but less fluid- plasma membranes are specifically permeable
fluid
liquid, gases
gradient
difference in a property between 2 adjoining regions (temp, pressure)
concentration
number of molecules in a fluid in a given unit of volume
concentration gradient
difference in concentrations between adjacent regions
diffusion
movement of molecules from high to low
passive transport
no energy is required, moves a substance from high to low
energy transport
energy is required
diffusion
simple and facilitated
osmosis
no energy required, diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane
active transport
energy trans- moves ions against gradient
endocytosis
energy trans- pinocytosis (cells drinking), receptor (selective eating), phagocytosis (cells eating)
exocytosis
ejections of particles from cells
cell support
cell walls
cells communicate
by gap junctions and plasmadesmata
molecular components
amino acids, proteins, carbs, lipids, RNA DNA water, ribosomes
plasma membrane
used for cell communication, regulating in and out, separating environments
prokaryote
small specialized surfaces, cytoplasm, no orgnanelles, ribosomes, no true nucleus
eukaryotes
larger, usually just a plasma membrane, cytoplasm has organelles/cytoskeleton, has a nucleus (strand chromosome)
animal
no cell walls, no central vacuole, no chloroplasts, centrioles
plant
cell walls, chloroplasts, central vacuole, plasmodesmata, no cetriole
cell
factory
nucleous
management and control center
membrane system
nuclear envelope, ER, golgi body, lysosomes, plasma membrane
ERr
ribosomes on surface, make proteins
ERs
embedded enzymes make lipids, detox
golgi
read id tags, let in and out, modify some molecules, repackages proteins and lipids
vesicles
transport cargo to golgi
lysosomes
formed by golgi, cells digestive system
vaculous
water regulation, support, storage
mitochondria
double membrane, extracts energy in glucose and other food- stores in ATP
chloroplast
double membrane, found in plants and some protists, sites of photosynthesis
cytoskeleton
protein fibers, provide cell shape, support, cell movement, organelle movement, cell diffusion
plastids
specialized double membrane organelles, primary storage containers (starch/pigments)
energy
kinetic, potential
chemical reactions can be
exergonic or endergonic
exergonic
reactants-> energy released, products
(Provide energy for endergonic)
endergonic
energy released, reactants-> products
ATP
an energy carrier molecule
electrons
energy carrier
enzymes
work by lowering the energy it takes to start a chemical reaction, each has a unique protein structure
catalyst
substance that speeds up a chemical reaction
biological catalyst
synthesized by a living organism, usually a protein
metabolism
regulated by regulating when enzymes are made, making sure some enzymes are an inactive form first, enzymes working in an optimum environment,
metabolism
flow must be timely and at a proper rate so the final product is not too much/too little
enzyme
active site's distinctive shape ONLY matches the substrate
enzymes
work best at an optimum pH, temp and salt level, if not optimum, the active site changes shape and substrate may no longer fit
inhibitition
alls the product of enzymes to be available
allosteric inhibition
active site shape changed
competitive inhibition
active site blocked
life
3.8 billion years ago
evolution proof
fossils, darwin's principle of natural selection, gene mutation
pre darwin years
theology based- all organisms created through God, unchanged from moment of creation
1700s
old testament 4-6,000 years, Aristotle
1800s
found huge number of species, maybe common ancestor?
fossils
showed life had changed over time, different layers=different forms, some extinct
george cuvier
catastrophism
georges louis leclere
conceived by nature, not accept
hutton and lyell
gradualism, no mechanism
old concepts
spontaneous generation (maggots in meat)
chemical evolution
gave rise to progressively more complex molecule which eventually gave rise to living organisms (no proof)
4 stage life process
organic monomers were formed spontaneously in prebiotic conditions
organic monomers spontaneously formed polymers of life before life
1980s
discovered RNA molecule acts as an enzyme
lab generated pre-cells
shown the ability to display metabolism
systematics
science of reconstructing phylogeny
phylogeny
study of life/evolutionary history
taxonomy
identification, naming, and classification of species
linnaeus 1700s
2 part name given to species- genus + species (homo sapian)
hierarchical classification
classifying species into increasingly broader groups
earliest organisms
monera, protista, plantae, fungi, animalia
domain
DNA makes group- bacteria, archaea, eukarya
ernst mayer
biological species concept
biological species concept
groups of interbreeding natural populations that are reproducing isolated from other such groups= not same species, cant reproduce
reproductive isolation
members of one population can not interbreed with another population

cannot define asexual organisms, how do we know 2 different groups did not interbreed?
premating
occupy different habitats, physically seperated, breed at different times
postmating
sperm not capable of fertilizing egg, offspring not equipped to survive
speciation
process by which new species form
genetic divergence of populations
can no longer interbreed and produce VIABLE offspring
isolation of populations
geographic barriers/ecological difference- no interbreeding
adaptive radiation
form of sympatric speciation- when populations of one or more species invade a variety of new habitats and evolve into new species in response to differing environmental pressures
animal diveristy
no single characteristic defines an animal, multicellular, cell wall lackage, motile
chordates
notochord, nerve cord, post anal tail, gill slits (vertebrates or invertebrates)
vertibrates
classes, a, c, r, o, a, a, m
bad guy virus
pathogen
viruses
not alive, cannot reproduce on their own
problem with viruses
constantly mutating, produce new genes
tobacco mosaic virus
precipitated as crystal therefore the virus is a chemical in nature
plant virus
enters plant cells via rips, no cures, can breed some that are genetically resistant to viruses
bacteriophage
only invade bacteria
bacteriophage life cycles
lytic, lysogenic
lytic
uses cells as host to reproduce
cause death
lysogenetic
hides in host cell until stresses then reproduces
cause death
animal viruses
associated by cell
nerve- polio, liver- hep, brain- rabies
AIDS
disorder that destroys a body's ability to protect itself
AIDS
retrovirus
Flu
3 types- humans, birds, mammals for Type A BAD
flu
Type B/C- mild humans
flu
caused by different surface proteins
cell entry
hemaglutinin
cell wall destroyer
neutramindase
viriods
non-living infectious agent
viriods
uses cellular enzymes to replicate
viriods
affects only plants
bacteria
13-15 kingdoms
archaea
3 kingdoms
prokaryote
more in mouth than all people that ever lived, 2 domains- bacteria and archaea
archaea
most are extremophiles- halophiles, thermophiles, methanogens
prokaryote
single celled, lacks organelles, no true nucleus, most have cell walls, 50% have flagellum
coccus
spherical- staphylococci, streptococci, sore throats
bacillus
rod- decomposers, antibiotics
spirochetes
spiral/corkscrew- syphilis/lyme disease
endospore
cell within a cell, normally dehydrated, survives
flagella
locomotions, one at both ends or just one
virus reproduction
binary fission (asexual), produces a clone, one every 20 min
autotroph
gets carbon via CO2 (earths atmosphere)
heterotroph
gets carbon from an organic compound (sugar)
chemotroph
get energy from chemicals in the environment (all poisonous to us)
nutritional classifications
photoautotrophs, chemoautotrophs, photoheterotrophs, chemoheterotrophs
prokaryotes
help digest cellulose, produces cheeses, yogurts, make vitamins K and B12
pathogenic bacteria
exotoxins, endotoxins
exotoxins
poisons secreted by bacterial cells (tetanus)
endotoxins
chemical components of cell walls (salmonella)
protists
the first eukaryotes, single/multicelled, form colonies
protist characteristics
organelles, nucleus, strand of DNA
protist reproduction
asexual miotic cell division (clone), some sexual reproduction (embryo never forms)
3 modes of nutrition
photosynthesis, ingestion, absorption
protozoans
4 major groups
flagellates
move bu 1+ flagellum (african sleeping sickness)
cilliates
move/feed using cilia (paramecium)
apricomplexans
parasites that enter a host's RBC via apex mechanism (malaria)
slime molds
decomposers
plasmodial
single cell with many nuclei
cellular
sing cell colony
unicellular algea
photosynthetic- dinoflagellates, diatoms, green algae, seaweeds (agar)
vascular tissue
developed for water transportation and nutrients
cuticle/cork layer
retards water loss
plant reproduction
reproduces sexually through spores
seedless, no vascular
no true leaves, water based, diffusion for water/nutrients, water required for reproduction, moss
seedless, vascular
land based, sporophyte is predominant, water required for reproduction, ferns
naked seed, vascular
gymnosperms, no flowers, no fruit, seeds and pollen help plants spread, conifers (pine cones)
covered seed, vascular
angiosperms, flowers, fruit, broad leaves, roots, shoots
angiosperm
flowering plant
monocot
lillies, grasses, palms, orchids
dicot
bushes, trees, garden flowers
fungi
receive energy directly from partner (lichens)
fungi
absorb nutrition- food is digested/processed outside of fungal cells and absorbed through cell wall
heterotrophs
cannot make food on their own
fungi
live in food source or go dormant in low humidity
hyphae
long tubes fungi have
fungi are responsible for
high plant productivity, decomposing wood/organic matter, penicillin/other medications
myocorrhizae
symbiotic association between plant roots and fungus
dicot
bushes, trees, garden flowers
fungi
receive energy directly from partner (lichens)
fungi
absorb nutrition- food is digested/processed outside of fungal cells and absorbed through cell wall
heterotrophs
cannot make food on their own
fungi
live in food source or go dormant in low humidity
hyphae
long tubes fungi have
fungi are responsible for
high plant productivity, decomposing wood/organic matter, penicillin/other medications
myocorrhizae
symbiotic association between plant roots and fungus