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128 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
ICSI is a technique where _________ is directly injected into the _____________.
sperm, egg
Humans desire to explore and learn can sometimes be very dangerous, which is exemplified by the destruction of the space shuttles________and _______.
Columbia, Challenger
The basis of life on earth is in the form of the element______ and as this element is abundant throughout the universe, it also may serve as the basis of life on other plantets.
Carbon
Forming the __________ is the first step of the life cycle.
blastocyst
In order for life to exist, it requires a narrow range of enviornmental conditions, including pH, pressure, energy, and _____.
Temperature
Thin hospitable caves known as Caeva De Willa Luiz in Mexico are home to bacteria which form large colonies that drip from the ceilings. These colonies are called_______.
Snottities
The Giant clam releases _________ first into the ocean and then waits 30 minutes before releasing the eggs, which allows for __________ between different individuals.
sperm; cross fertilization
Lake Vostok is a large body of water which is located about 4,000 m below the _______ice sheets and contains abundant life which can tolerate the extreme cold.
Antarctic
Bacteria live 3.5 km underground within the Earth’s crust and gain their energy from _______ gas.
methane
In a recent poll of scientists at a European Space Agency conference found that _______ of them believe that life once existed on Mars and ______ believe it supports life today.
75%, 25%
The Christmas Island crabs make a pilgrimage to the shore to lay their _________ in the ocean even though they reside on ____________.
Eggs, land
________, a moon of Jupiter, is hypothesized to have a liquid ocean capable of supporting life under its thick ice caps.
Europa
SETI was the first scientific organization to look for evidence of ______________
Extraterrestrial Intelligence
It was ___________ that evolved a way to eliminate the need for an external source of food for their young.
mammals
The equation formulated in the 1960’s to estimate the possible number of intelligent civilizations in the Milky Way Galaxy is called the _______ equation.
Drake
Although it is currently impossible to see distant planets around other stars using telescopes, we can detect them because the planets exert a gravitational pull on the stars that they orbit. This pull causes the star to _________.
wobble
In placental mammals they evolved a _________ which allows them to develop a fertilized egg to term.
uterus
________ telescopes were the first type of telescopes employed to look for the signals of communication from distant civilizations.
radio
After fertilization the embryo attaches to the uterus and produces the ____________ which will transfer the nutrients gained from the mother to the fetus.
placenta
The ________ space crafts were both launched in the 1970’s to explore our solar system, but although they have been traveling for more than 30 years, it would take another ________ years at the speed of light for them to reach the next closest star.
Voyager, 80,000
Some scientists believe that intelligent life may not exist in the Milky Way Galaxy because of the probability of ___________ for a technologically advanced civilizations is rather high.
self-annihilation
Humans are nothing more than a collection of molecules composed of __________, ____________, and ___________, yet we are one of the most complex creatures on Earth.
hydrogen, oxygen, carbon : can be in any order
One argument for the presence of intelligent life elsewhere in our galaxy assumes that because _________ evolved, the conditions of the universe must be suitable for intelligent life to evolve elsewhere.
humans
The _______ flu pandemic killed between approximately 50 million people world-wide around the time of World War I.
Spanish
If the H5N1 strain of flu known as _____ were to become a pandemic, it is estimated to kill between 7.4 and _________ million people world-wide.
Bird Flu, 150
Today _____________ is the number one infectious agent in the world that causes death in adults.
tuberculosis
Because viruses cannot survive on their own and must take over a cell in order to reproduce, they are known as intracellular ___________.
parasites
___________ resistant tuberculosis results from the development of _________ resistant bacteria.
multi-drug, antibiotic
The surface of a virus is covered with two types of ____________ , abbreviated H and N.
proteins
The human genome consists of more than _______ bases, which if stretched out would form a chain that would reach to the ____________
3 billion, Sun
The fact that all living organisms, from simple bacteria to human beings, use the same ____________ , points to the commonality of life on Earth.
genetic code
Scientists have shown that at some point in evolution ___________ cells took up residence in eukaryotic cells to become the first organelles through a process know as____________________.
Prokaryotes; endosymbiosis
Most scientists predict that almost all extraterrestrial life forms would be carbon based, although it is conceivable that some life forms could be _____ based, because it too is capable of forming four chemical bonds.
silica
Biological membranes are composed of detergent-like molecules known as ______.
phospholipids
Scientists now realize that approximately _________ of the biomass in the ocean is made up of ____________
90%; bacteria or microbes
During protein synthesis, a short segment of the DNA corresponding to the region of interest is copied into another type of nucleic acid known as RNA. This process is known as ________.
transcription
Influenza viruses belong to a group of viruses that use RNA instead of DNA for its genetic material. These viruses contain _______ pieces of RNA
eight
All prokaryotic cells are _____________, while all eukaryotic cells are ________________
unicellular, multicellular
All independent life forms must have a source of _______ to drive the chemical reactions for all their cellular activities.
energy
The tree of life is composed of three branches and it is thought that the extremophiles of ______________ are more closely related to Eucarya than to Bacteria.
Archaea
Bacteria have evolved enzymes that they use to cut up foreign DNA sequences. These enzymes are called _________
restriction enzymes
One of the first medicines to be developed through the use of genetic engineering was ______
insulin
The concept of Biosphere 2 was ____________ ____________.
total recycling
In the United States, the percentages of genetically modified crops being cultivated for soybean and corn are ____, and ____ respectively.
81%, 40%
A gene from the bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis, has been inserted into corn because this gene produces a toxin that can kill the corn pest called the _______________
European corn borer
The failure of Biosphere 2 was due to an overactive compost heap, where ___________ flourished and reproduced creating a dramatic impact on the __________ cycle.
microbes or bacteria; oxygen
The _______ flu pandemic killed between approximately 50 million people world-wide around the time of World War I.
Spanish
If the H5N1 strain of flu known as _____ were to become a pandemic, it is estimated to kill between 7.4 and _________ million people world-wide.
Bird Flu, 150
The marshland ecosystem the plants are the orgininators of the food web converting __________ energy into carbohydrates, but the grass can only be broken down by _____________, which provide nutrients to the animals.
solar, microbes
Because viruses cannot survive on their own and must take over a cell in order to reproduce, they are known as intracellular ___________.
parasites
The surface of a virus is covered with two types of ____________ , abbreviated H and N.
proteins
The human genome consists of more than _______ bases, which if stretched out would form a chain that would reach to the ____________
3 billion, Sun
The cow’s stomach harbors billions of bacteria which are used to degrade the ____________ in plants so that the cow can absorb the nutrients.
cellulose
The fact that all living organisms, from simple bacteria to human beings, use the same ____________ , points to the commonality of life on Earth.
genetic code
A cow has ____________ chambers in its stomach and the _________ is the largest compartment and functions as a fermentation chamber.
4, rumen
Most scientists predict that almost all extraterrestrial life forms would be carbon based, although it is conceivable that some life forms could be _____ based, because it too is capable of forming four chemical bonds.
silica
Biological membranes are composed of detergent-like molecules known as ______.
phospholipids
During protein synthesis, a short segment of the DNA corresponding to the region of interest is copied into another type of nucleic acid known as RNA. This process is known as ________.
transcription
The degradation process in our landfills is very slow, but if ________ and ___________ are pumped into the refuse, the microbes flourish and cuts the degradation time significantly.
air and water; any order
Influenza viruses belong to a group of viruses that use RNA instead of DNA for its genetic material. These viruses contain _______ pieces of RNA
eight
All independent life forms must have a source of _______ to drive the chemical reactions for all their cellular activities.
energy
__________ is an important method for copper mining and accounts for over 25% of the world’s copper production.
bioleaching
Bacteria have evolved enzymes that they use to cut up foreign DNA sequences. These enzymes are called _________
restriction enzymes
In copper minning, the low grade copper ore exists as sulfide in rocks. Thus by selecting ___________ that can extract _____________ from the sulfide, the copper can be released.
microbes, energy
One of the first medicines to be developed through the use of genetic engineering was ______
insulin
In the United States, the percentages of genetically modified crops being cultivated for soybean and corn are ____, and ____ respectively.
81%, 40%
A coma is defined as a period of _______that lasts over an hour, during which the patient’s eyes are closed.
unconsciousness
A gene from the bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis, has been inserted into corn because this gene produces a toxin that can kill the corn pest called the _______________
European corn borer
The oldest person on record to ever live was Jeanne Calment, who lived to be ________ years old.
122
In the USA there are over _____________ and over ___________ centenarians world wide.
22,000; 200,000
The human body is a complex machine with many intricate components, including _____ bones and _____ muscles
206, 650
The oldest living organism on Earth is the ____________ which was estimated at ____________ years old.
Bristlecone Pine tree, 4600
With a svelte and muscular body, cheetahs can accelerate to a top speed of ____ in a few seconds, but only weigh slightly more than ______
70 mph, 100 lbs
One reason why humans and other animals have been successful is because of their _______ body plan.
bilateral
In the early 20th century the life expectancy was _______ years old and today it is much greater (77-81 years), which can be attributed to ____________ advances.
50; technological
Life expectancy is different from life span in that the life expectancy of an organism is subjected to ____________ factors, which can vary greatly
enviornmental
In Lewis Carroll’s Through the Looking-Glass, . Alice asked the ________ why they did not seem to be going anywhere during their race. This scene is a good analogy for the Evolutionary Arms race, in which neither participant can get anywhere, but must keep evolving in order to just keep up.
Red Queen
The Swedish botanist Carolus Linnaeus invented the classification system that is used by modern biologists, which relies on ________ traits to distinguish among species.
morphological
These proteins which act like cellular “glue” to hold cells together is called _________. This protein was first used by the group of animals known scientifically as ________ .
collagen, Porifera
In 2003 NASA sent the __________ and Opportunity to explore the terrain of Mars and send back pictures and samples to Earth.
Spirit
Although sponges have no muscle, no neurons, and no brain, they do have specialized cells for eating and moving water. This specialization occurred first in this group and is known as ___________________.
cell differentiation
Sponges have been in every aquatic habitat on Earth, and to date biologists have identified over _____ species
9,000
Using the basic design of repetitive body units, Arthropods have developed __________ _____________ in order to move in many directions.
jointed appendages
The Cnidarians were the first animals to possess _________, allowing them to become the first group of animals to move.
muscles
Jelly fish tentacles contain stinging cells, known as ______ for capturing prey.
nematocysts
The insect body plan consists of __________, ______________, and _______________.
head, thorax, abdomen ; in any order
Muscle tissue is the same in all animals, from the jelly fish to humans. The two type of proteins which enable muscles to contract are ______ and _____.
actin, myosin
To coordinate the motion of muscles, the cnidarians a simple network of _______ that allow the muscle fibers to communicate using a combination of electrical impulses and chemical signals.
nerve cells
Arthropods have evolved an ____________ in order to protect their soft bodies
exoskeleton
The flatworm’s mouth is not in its head but is located on the underside of its body. It consumes its prey by extruding a device known as a _____ from its mouth.
Pharynx
The exoskeleton was one of the most successful innovations that came from the Cambrian explosion, which allowed Arthropods to be the first animal to conquer______________.
land
The bright colored markings of most marine flatworms which live in the coral reefs are a warning that they are either _______ or _______ .
poisonous, not appetizing
Most marine flatworms produce both eggs and sperm, a condition known as __________.
hermaphroditism
A ________ can contain thousands egg producing segments, reaching a length of 60 feet, and can live for 30 years inside their human host.
tape worm
The segmented body plan of Arthropods allows them the ability to produce a wide variety of _____________, which also allow them to quickly adapt to their new environments.
appendages
The dinosaur named _____ is the largest female Tyrannosaurus rex ever discovered. Her skeleton can be viewed at the Field Museum in Chicago, Illinois
Sue
Flowering plants are classified as _______________ and they produce___________ as their reproductive structure.
angiosperms; flowers
An important for the fossilization of tissues and bones is that these soft tissues must become _______.
mineralized
The most famous _____ fossils are the Laetoli footprints of early humans, dated to 3.6 million years ago, which represent two adults and a small child walking in an upright position
trace
The flower of a plant is primarily a ___________ reproductive organ, with the ________ in the center surrounded by petals.
female; ovule or egg
_____ fossils can contain the remains of perfectly preserved insects and spiders.
Resin
One way to date fossils is to use the order of horizontal layers of rock, known as _____, that have been formed over time. Because the layers are formed sequentially through the ages the age of a fossil can be inferred.
Strata
Charles Doolittle Walcott discovered many types of organisms in the fossils of the __________, many of which were so bizarre that he could not find any counterparts among living species.
Burgess Shale
The anther of a plant contains _________ which is equivalent to __________ in animals.
pollen; sperm
Pikaia was a small animal that lived during the Cambrian explosion. Its body plan resembles that of the modern ________, with a similar arrangement of the muscle segments, spinal cord, and brain.
vertebrates
The ________ was a period in time in the early oceans when there was a sudden emergence of animal forms.
Cambrian explosion
The insect-plant relationship is a ___________ relationship, where plants entice insects to pick up _________ from one flower and deliver it to another.
mutual; pollen
One of the hypotheses for the Cambrian explosion was an increase in the Earth’s _______ concentration, which promoted the evolution or larger body forms.
oxygen
Plants mainly use the ___________ strategy in temperate zones, where most flowers bloom only for a ________ period of time.
generalist; short
For millions of years, the ocean floor had been covered with clams, but the development of new types of _______ which evolved more effective ways of breaking into the clams _____ almost wiped them out.
predators, shells
The lampsilis mussels have evolved a special fish-like lure that attracts ________. The larvae of the mussel feed on the blood in its gills for several weeks before falling off
Large Mouth Bass
________ are a group of plants that have evolved to use highly specialized tactics, such as oil production or mimicry, to attract ______________.
Orchids; insects
There are ____ species of bats, of which ____% feed on insects.
900, 70
A good example of the __________ is the cheetah and the gazelle, because no matter how many gazelles the cheetah catches, some gazelles get away.
evolutionary arms race
As seen on the video in class, the Gentian flowers have pollen that is only accessible to ___________, which will vibrate its wings at a different ___________ allowing the pollen to be release from the anther.
bumble bee; frequencies
___________ twins occurs 4 in every 1,000 births, while ___________ twins occurs 12 in 1,000 births.
identical or monozygotic; fraternal or dizygotic
Fraternal twins can occur when the mother releases ___________ eggs during ovulation and each are fertilized
2
Identical twins in essence are ____________ of one another, because they share the same identical set of genes.
clones
The CF gene has been shown to encode for a protein that serves as a channel in the __________ ____________.
cell membrane
When a gene undergoes a change in its sequence, the process is known as ______________.
mutation
In Tay-Sachs disease, the individual is lacking an ____________ that is required to metabolize a fatty compound in the brain.
enzyme
Cystic fibrosis and Tay-Sachs disease are both have _____________ ___________ inheritance.
autosomal recessive
Humans have two sets of _______ chromosomes, each set from our parents.
23
In reproductive organs each gamete will only receive _________set of chromosomes, in a process called__________
1; meiosis
In the equation [possible combinations = 2n], n stand for _________ ____________.
haploid number
During meiosis I chromosomal ___________ can occur, which further adds to the level of gamete variation.
recombination
When a mutation occurs in a body cell it ______ passed on to the next generation, while mutations in gamete cells ___________ passed on to the offspring.
is not; are
An alteration between one and two sets of genetic material during the reproductive cycle is know as the ____________________ cycle.
haploid-diploid