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82 Cards in this Set

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Phylum Chordata (5 common characteristics)
1. notochord
2. dorsal, hollow nerve cord
3. pharyngeal gill slits
4. post-anal tail
5. endostyle
Three subphyla of Chordata
Urochordata, Cephalochordata, and Vertebrata
Subphylum Urochordata
Filter feeders:
1. Water passes through pharyngeal gill slits.
2. Tiny food particles are filtered and passed by cilia to stomach.
Subphylum Cephalochordata
Filter feeders:
1. Burrows tail into sand so mouth and tentacles, called cirri, are exposed.
2. water is drawn into mouth and tiny food particles are filtered in the pharynx and passed to intestine.
3. Excess water goes through atrial cavity via pharyngeal gill-slits and exits body through the atriopore.
Atrium
Chamber for excess water passing through gill slits
Atriopore
Opening to allow water to leave animal
Paedomorphosis
The retention of the juvenile form into adulthood.
Phylum Vertebrata
Increased size and mobility.
1. Cephalization
2. Crainum and vertebral column (replaces notochord)
3. Adaptations in circulatory and respiratory systems.
Brain of perch
Olfactory lobes (anterior), larger cerebrum behind, followed by large optic lobes.
Tetrapods
Animals with four limbs to support them on land.
Amniotes
Animals that lay shelled, water-filled eggs.
Class Agnatha
Lampreys
Class Chondrichtyes
Sharks and Rays
Class Osteichtyes
Bony fish (Perch)
Class Amphibia
Frogs, toads, mudpuppies, and salamanders. (First adaptations to life on land by chordates; legs for hopping)
Class Reptilia
Lizards, snakes, turtles, crocodiles
Amniotic Egg
Shelled egg comes with its own watery environment releasing reptiles from a dependence on water for reproduction.
Poikilothermic
Amphibians and reptiles are poikilothermic. They cannot regulate their body temperature internally.
Class Aves
Birds
Class Mammalia
Mammals
Homeothermy/endothermy
Modifications which help organisms regulate their body temperature without regard to the external environment.
Chapter 18
Vertebrate Anatomy
Tissue
Groups of similar, specialized cells that perform a common function.
Four general types of tissue
1. Epithelium
2. Connective Tissue
3. Muscle
4. Nervous
Neurons
Cells that carry nervous impulses
Chromatophores
Pigment cells that give frog skin its characteristic color and pattern.
Cornified Cells
Consists of cells impregnated with the protein keratin.
Keratin
waterproofs and toughens cells, protecting the layers beneath from water loss and abrasion.
Sebaceous glands
Secretes sebum that keeps hair oily.
Sweat Glands
Water secretions from these glands help regulate body temperature by cooling the surface of the skin.
Adipose Tissue
"Chicken wire" Possess a large vacuole which is filled with fat
External nares
Frog nostril
Tympanic membrane
Frog ear
Osteocytes
Mature bone
Hydroxyapatite
A calcium salt
Haversian systems
Osteocytes arranged in concentric rings that form cylinders. These cylinders are called Haversian systems.
Haversian canal
Blood vessels and nerves run.
Lacuna
Small space that osteocytes occupy.
Canaliculi
Fine hair-like extensions from each lacuna.
Skeletal Muscles
Usually attached to bone
Smooth muscles
Involuntary muscles.
Digestion of food
Begins in stomach, completed in the anterior part of the intestine (the duodenum), and remainder of intestine (the jejunoileum) is involved with absorption of digested food.
Colon
Absorbs water and ions and delivers feces to the cloaca.
Live
Produces bile, which assists in digestion of fats.
Gall Bladder
stores Bile.
Mesentery
A memberane that holds organs in place.
Pancreas
Makes many digestive enzymes and produces the hormones insulin and glucagon, which regulate blood sugar levels.
Cardiac muscle
Muscle found only in the heart, like skeletal muscle cardiac muscle is striated, but striations look fainter.
Intercalated discs
Bind cells together tightly to prevent tearing of cardiac muscle and provides channels for ion flow between fibers
Erythrocytes
Carries oxygen
Spleen
Site of synthesis of new blood cells and destruction of worn out blood cells.
Parietal Peritoneum
The peritoneum that lines the body cavity
Leukocytes
White blood cells
Ureter
Carries urine to the urinary bladder
Urinary Bladder
A thin-walled sac behind colon.
Neuroglial cells
Numerous small cells among neurons
Biotic factors
Living components
Abiotic factors
Nonliving components
Populations
All the members of a given species that live in a particular location
Community
All of the organism populations living and interacting in a given environment
Ecosystem
The level of ecological study that includes the entire community along with its physical environment.
Autotrophs
Capture small portion of the sun's energy and uses it to manufacture all the organic nutrients for an ecosystem.
Primary Producers
Autotrophs are primary producers.
Primary productivity
The rate at which energy is stored as organic matter.
Heterotrophs
Cannot make their own food. Obtain energy from chemical bonds in food they eat.
Primary consumer
An organism that eats a producer
Secondary consumer
An organism that eats a primary consumer.
Tertiary consumer
Feeds on secondary consumers
Trophic Level
Relationship between what an organism eats and what is eaten
Herbivore
Obtain nutrients by eating primary producers (living algae and plants)
Carnivores
Feed on consumers and organisms that feed on both producers and consumers are classified as omnivores.
Decomposers
Organisms such as bacteria and fungi that degrade the remains of dead organisms into simpler materials.
Detritivores
Organisms such as insects, worms, and crustaceans that consume detritus.
detritus
Dead organic matter.
Littoral zone
The shallow region along the shore where light penetrates to the bottom.
Limnetic zone
Layer of open water ot the depth that light penetrates.
Profundal zone
The deep region beneath the limnetic zone where light does not penetrate. Many decomposers are found here.
Surface film
Provides habitat for many pond organisms.
Species diversity
The number of individual organisms present in the community to the number of species in that community.
Species richness
Number of different species in a community
Relative abundance
number of individuals among species.
Simpson's Index
Measures species dominance; the number of times one would have to take pairs of individuals at random to find a pair of the same species.