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53 Cards in this Set

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What is the test for small sugars? (mono/di sacherides)
Bededict's reagent
What are the limitations of Benedict's reagent?
Can't determine type of sugar, doesn't work for sucrose
What represents a positive Benedict's test?
A colored (yellow, green, orange or red) percipitate forms
What represents a negative Benedict's test?
a clear substance
In the Benedict's test what can be used as a control.
water + benedicts
What is the test for small sugars? (mono/di sacherides)
Bededict's reagent
What are the limitations of Benedict's reagent?
Can't determine type of sugar, doesn't work for sucrose
What represents a positive Benedict's test?
A colored (yellow, green, orange or red) percipitate forms
What represents a negative Benedict's test?
a clear substance
In the Benedict's test what can be used as a control.
water + benedicts
What reagent is used to test for the resence of starch?
Iodine reagent
What constitutes a positive result for an iodine test?
a dark blue/purple color
What constitutes a negative result for an iodine test?
an amber color
What are the limitations to an iodine reagent?
After a certain time and/or hydrolisis starchs helical structure breaks down and the iodine can no longer bind to it.
What monosacherides will result from the hydrolisis of sucrose?
glucose and fructose
What monosacheride will result for the hydrolisis of starch?
gluctose
What is hydrolisis?
the process by which polysacherides are broken down into their components
What is used as a test for the presence of proteins?
Biruets reagent
What constitutes a positive Birutet test?
A blue or lavender color
How did we perform a serial dilution?
For 5 test tubes?
What will be the concentration of each?
Start with a stock sample of a substance (40mg/ml of BSA for example)
pipette 5ml of water into 4 tubes 1-4
Pipette 9.5 ml of water into tube 5
Using a 1ml pipette add .5 of the stock BSA into tube 5 and mix
Remove 5 ml (half) of this solution and put it into tube 4 repeat for all
The stock solution will have a concentation of 40,000μg/ml, tube 5 will have 2000μg/ml, tube 4 will have 1000μg/ml
How do you blank a Spec?
1. set wavelength
2. set 0%transmitance with NO blank in chamber
3. put in blank and set transmitance to 100%
4. Switch to absorbance
What is an assay?
A means of detecting and measuring the activity of an enzyme
How is enzyme activity expressed?
amount of substrate used per unit of time
or
amount of product produced per unit of time
What is a compound that is colorless but yeilds a colored product upon reaction called?
a chromogenic substance
What was the enzyme used in the Enzyme lab called?
phosphatase
What were the substrates for the enzyme lab I ?
(chromogenic substance) p-nitrophenyl phosphate (PNPP)
What was the product for the enzyme lab I?
(colored product)p-nirtophenol (PNP)
When does p-nirtophenol (PNP) turn yellow?
Under high pH
Why was NaOH added to the enzyme reaction
stop reaction and raise pH
Why do you establish a standard curve?
In order to convert the value of absorbance into concentration of protein
How do you establish a standard curve?
Make known concentrations of enzyme with varying concentrations of product, and controled concentrations of buffer, protein, NaOH
test absorbance and plot
What kind of a graph do you expect to get if you vary the amount of enzyme but keep the substrate the same?
linear relationship
How do you find the mass of a product?
Conc. (u moles/liter) X Volume (L) = Mass PNP (u moles)
How do you find the concntration of a product?
net absorbace solved for standar curve
How do you find the volume of product?
C1V1 = C2V2
how do you recognize a cell that is hypertonic?
it is shrivaled inside the cell wall because water has exited the cell
what does it mean to be hypertonic
there is a higher concentrantion of solutes OUTSIDE of a cell
what does it mean to be hypotonic
there is a higher concentration of solutes inside the cell
what does it mean to be isotonic
same concentration of solutes inside and outside the cell.
How do you recognize a hypotonic cell
there is high turgor pressure: the cell is swollen
In the alcohol fermentation lab what are you measuring?
CO2 evolved
In the alcohol fermentation lab what does amound of CO2 evolved indicate
relative rate of fermentation
In the cellular respiration lab why is the mitochondrial suspension kept on ice?
to keep it from degrading
In the cellular respiration lab why is sucrose added to the mitichondrial suspension?
to maintain an osmotic balence
What is DPIP and why is it used in the cellular respiration lab?
DPIP is an electron acceptor that intercepts the hydrogen ions and electrons released from succinate, changing the DPIP to a reduced state changing its color form blue to clear. we can use this color change to measure the rate of respiration
In the cellular respiration lab where does DPIP get hydrogen ions from?
succinate (in the Krebs cycle)
In the phososynthesis lab what was used as a supply of CO2?
sodium bicarbonate
in a chi square table for a dihybryd cross what constitutes a deviation explained by chance?
greater than .05
How do you calculate deviation in a chi square?
deviation= (observed-expected)²/expected
How do you calculate number expected in a chi square?
(total #) x (mendelean prediction) = number expected
How do you identify a drisophela male?
a dark genital disk
how do you identify a female drisophela
a white pointed bottom
What are wild type eyes in drisophela
large red eyes