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62 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Two major categories of sensory receptors?
somatic (touch, temperature,presure, pain)
special (smell, taste, hearing, vision, equilibrium)
Five types of sensory receptors?
Chemoreceptors (Chemical conc. of substances) , Thermoreceptors (stimulated by changes in temperature), Mechanoreceptors (change in pressure or movement), Photorecetor (light), pain receptors (tissue damage)
what is a feeling that occurs when the brain interprets impulses?
what is the benefit of projections?
so that you can pinpoint region of stimulation
what is the benfit of sensory adaptation?
allows a person to adapt to strong stimulus
how long does it take for warm and cold receptors to adapt?
about 1 minute
why does the sense of peain sometimes persist?
pain receptors adapt poorly and continue to send impulses for some time
where are receptors absent?
what role does ischemia play in pain?
triggers pain sensation.
ischemia- lack of oxygen rich blood.
what 3 factors play a role in visceral pain?
decreased blood/oxygen flow, stretching of smooth muscle, an chemoreceptors
define referred pain and why does this occur?
eeling as if pain is coming from another part of the body.
brain shares the nerve pathway
explain the difference between acute and chronic pain fibers.
acute- thin, myelinated fibers that conduct impulses rapidly, superficial tissue
chronic- thin, unmyelinated fibers that conduct impulses slowly. lass longer and associated with deep tissue.
what role does the thalamus play in pain? what role does the cerebral cotex play n pain?
thalamus- awareness of pain
cerebral cortex- emotional and motor resonses; intensity and source
how does morphine affect pain?
relieve strong pain sensations. supresses acute and chronic pain.
how many types od olfactory receptors and their location?
500 types
in nasal concha
Why is it difficult to smell with a stuffy nose?
blocked access to olfactory receptors. decreased appetite.
who has a better sense of smell: humans or dogs?
define anosmia. list 4 causes.
anosmia- partial or complete loss of smell.
inflammation of nasal cavity lining, tobacco smokie, epinephrine, cocaine
define gustatry cell, where is it located, and how often is it replaced?
taste cell; modiied epi cell that makes up a taste bud
surface of tongue
3 days
4 taste sensations?
sweet, salty, bitter, sour
explain olfactory and taste nerve pathways.
olfactory- receptor-> axons -> limbc system.
taste receptors- receptors-> vagus-> cranial nerves-> facial-> glosspharyngeal-> vagus nerves-> medulla-> thalaums-> gustatory process-> frontal
3 parts of ear?
external, middle, internal
2 parts of external ear?
auricle- funnel shaped
external auditory meatus- s-shaped tube. 2.5 cm in length. goes through temporal
3 parts that make up middle ear?
tymanic cavity- air-filled space in temporal bone
what is the role of the eardrum and which ossicle is attached?
produce vibrations. malleus is attached; semi-transparent skin on outside. mucus membrane on inside. cone-shapd
3 roles of ossicles?
malleus, incus, and stapes.
they bridge eardrum and inner ear, transmitting vibrations. atached by tiny ligaments
which window leads to inner ear?
what is purpose of eustachian tube?
connects middle ear to throat. equalizes pressure
what is the role of the semicircular canal and cochlea?
semicircular- sense of equilibrium
cochlea- hearing
where does roun window lead?
inner ear
whereare hearing receptors found?
organ of corti; hairlike receptors extend to the endolymph
4 causes of partial or complete hearing loss?
damage to cochlea, auditory nerve, or auditory nerve pathways, loud noises, damage to temproal, changes to eardrum
explain difference between static and dynamic equilbrium.
static- still
dynamic- moving
what causes moiton sickness?
motions that disturb equilibrium
what is located within the pear-shaped orbital cavity?
eye, lacrima gland, associated extrinsic muscles
thinnest skin of body?
define conjuctiva and where are tears secreted?
conjunctiva- mucous membrane that lines inner surfaces of eyelids and folds back to cover anterior surface of eyeball
tears- lacrimal gland
benefit of lysozyme?
antibacterial agent- prevents eye infetion
4 facts about eye. what gives eye its shape
provides sight, 3 layers- outer, middle, ad innter tunics, hollow, spherical structure, shape is maintained by spaces within eye filled with fluids.
define cornea
window of eye; helps focus entering light rays, fibrous tunic, transparent
define sclera
white portion of eyes, fibrous tunic, muscle attachment
define iris
thin diphragm composed mostly of connective tissue and smoth muscle fbers; colored, vascular unic
define pupil
circular opening in center of iris
define retina
contains visual receptors- photoreceptors
define aqueous humor
matery fluid secreted from ciliary layer, fills space between cornea, nourishes
what makes the sclera opaque, the cornea transparent, the puril black, and the iris colored?
pupil- it absorbs everything
cornea- few cells, no blood vessels. avascular
iris- genetic
most common cause of blindness?
loss of transparency of cornea, catarax
where is sharpest vision located and the blind spot?
sharp- fovea contralis: depression in center of retina
blind- optic disc region
what is a floater?
spekc in field of vision- shadows on retina
what is importance of convex shapr of eye with light?
causes light waves to converge
what is purpose of rods and cones?
visual receptor cells. cones- color and sharp vision.
rods- dim light
what causes night blindness and glaucoma?
night- vitamin a deficiency
glaucoma- rate of aqueous humor formation exceds rate of removal
what is affected when a person is color blind?
cone pigments- cant disinguish between certain colors. genetic, mostly males.
list steps involved in visual nerve pathway.
optic nerve, optic chiasma, optic triasma, optic radiations, plsma
defina anopia
one eye
define diplopia
double vision
define itiris
inflammation fo iris
define enucleation
removal of eyeball
define vertigo
menieres disease
inner ear disorder tht causes rinign in ears, dizziness, hearing loss
define tinnitus
ringing in ears
define otitis media
inflammation of middle ear