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19 Cards in this Set

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Transformation
A change in genotype and phenotype due to the assimilation of external DNA by a cell.
Bacteriophages
viruses that infect bacteria
double helix
two strands in DNA
semiconservative model
daughter = 1 new and 1 old strand of DNA from parent
origins of replication
sites where DNA replication begins
replication fork
a Y-shaped region where new strands of DNA are elongating
DNA polymerases
Enzymes that catalyze the elongation of new DNA at a replication fork
leading strand
The DNA strand made by DNA polymerase adding nucleotides
Lagging strand
DNA strand synthesized away from replication fork with okazaki fragments
DNA ligase
joins sugar-phosphate backbone of the okazaki fragments to make one strand
primer
A short stretch of RNA start of a new chain
primase
an enzyme that joins RNA nucleotides to make a primer
helicase
an enzyme that untwists the double helix at fork
single-strand binding protein
line up along unpaired DNA strands hole them apart and are templates for new complementary strands
mismatch repair
Special enzymes fix incorrectly paired nucleotides
nuclease
a DNA cutting enzyme that cuts out damage in DNA
nucleotide excision repair
DNA repair in which an enzyme fills up the cut stops from nuclease
telomeres
Nucleotide sequences ends liner DNA molecules
telemerase
enzyme catalyzes lengthening of telomeres