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20 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Biotechnology
Use of organisms to perform tasks for humans
Recombinant DNA Technology
Combine genes from different oraganisms or species
Plasmids
Small, circural DNA moleucles that are separate from the much larger bacterial chromosome
Restricition Enzyme
"Cuts" a DNA molecule into fragments at specific points
Genomic Library
Complete collection of cloned DNA fragments from an organism
Nucleic Acid Probe
Molecule that has been labled with radioactivity, making it easy to detect
Genetically Modified Organism (GMO)
Any organism that has acquired one or more genes by artificial means
Trangenic
New genetic material if it came from a different species
Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)
Technique that makes billions of identical DNA molecules in just a few hours
Gel Electrophoresis
Technique for sorting DNA fragments by length
Genetic Markers
particular stretches of DNA that vary from person to person
DNA Fingerprint
The particular pattern of banding on each persons DNA fragment
Operon
A cluster of genes, along with its two control sequences
Promoter
Binding site for an enzyme need in DNA transcription
Operator
Switches the promoter on and off
Repressor
Protein that turns the operator off by binding it
Gene Expression
Transcription and translation of genes into proteins
Transcription Factors
Proteins that regulate genes that have promoter sequences
Cellular Differentiation
A process which develops with organisms with many cells, and the individual cells become more specialized in structure and function as the organism develops
Stem Cells
Cells that remain able to differentiate into various other types of cells