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69 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Experimental Method
1.Observation
2.Hypothesis
3.Testing Hypothesis
4.Recording and Analyzing data
5.Replicating the work
6.Forming a conclusion
Independent Varible
the intentionally altered factor that you introduce into the experiment
Dependent Varible
what is affect by (depends) the factor that you change
Structural Heirarchy
organelle (microvilli)
cell (blood)
tissue (muscle)
organ (liver)
organ system (digestive system)
Autotroph
can feed itself
Hetertroph
has to eat other food source
Diffusion
movement of substance from high to low consentration
-no energy required
-substance moves down concentration gradiant
selectively permeable membrane
only allows certian things to pass through -- shape and size dertermine weather it can pass
rate of diffusion
depends on:
1.concentration gradiant
2.temperature
3.nedium- substance it passes through
4.mass of particle
Passive transport
*no energy required*
1.simple diffusion-- passes right through lipid bilayer (ex.steriods, h2o, co2)
2.facillitated diffusion--diffusion with the help of transport protien (ex.monosaccharides)
3.Osmosis -- diffusion of water
-isotonic-same inside and outside of cell
-hypotonic-more particles inside of cell
-hypertonic-more particels outside of cell
Active transport
*energy required
paricles move against consentration gradiant
Bulk transport
*energy required
moving big substances
-exocytosis--moving out of cell
-endocytosis--moving in to cell
1.pinocytosis--smaller substances (ex.protiens)--vesicle
2.phagocytosis--larger substances (ex.white blood cells)--pesudopods--"cell eating"
Consentration Gradiant
the exsistance of a difference between the consentration of molecules across a certian area
Types of Asexual Reproduction
-one parent
-offspring genetic clones
A.Binary Fission--one cell splits into two cells -- bacteria only!!
{o} -> {oo) -> {o}{o)
B. Mitosis -- ex:amobea, euglena, paramecium
C.Budding--a little cell grows off the larger cell and eventually breaks free (ex. yeast, hydra)
0 -> O* -> O *
D. Regeneration--regrowth of lost part (ex. planara)
O -> ( -> () -> O
E.Vegitative Reproduction-growth of entire organism form a plant part (ex.potato)
Chromosome vs. Chromotin
Chromosome:
1.coiled DNA
Chromotin:
2.uncoiled DNA
Interphase
G1 && G2 -- growth phases where the cell grows and carries out cell function

S- synthesis of DNA
Mitosis
1.prophase
-centrioles move to oppisite poles
-spindles and asters form (microtubuals)
-chromotin coils -> replicated chromosomes
-nuclear envelope begins to desintigrate
2.metaphase
-replicated chromosomes line up along equator/ metaphase plate
3.Anaphase
-centromere btw. sister chromotids breaks
-nuclear membrane breaks
-spindle fibers drag single chromosomes to oppostie sides
4.Telephase
-chromosomes reach poles
-nuclear membrane reforms
-spindle fibers/asters desintergrate
-cytokenesis occurs - spliting of the cell into two cells
-animal cells - clevage burrow
-plants--NO centrioles/asters
-plate forms btw. two cells
rate of cell division
-interphase takes the longest -- 16-20 hrs
-red blood cells--never undergo mitosis--3 mths -> removed by spline
-embrotic cells divide rapidly
-nuerons/muscle cells rarely divide
meiosis
MEIOSIS 1-
1.prophase 1
-homo. chromo. line up (synapsis)
-crossing over occurs
2.metaphase 1-
-homo. chromo. pair up at equator
3.anaphase 1
-homo. chromo. seperate from eachother and are pulled to opposite poles
4.telephase 1
-cytokenisis occurs
-each cell has half the number of chromo. present in parent cell but still replicated

MEIOSIS 2 IS SAME AS MITOSIS
gametes
sex cells
diploid number
2n -- number of chromosomes in regular body cell
haploid numer
n --half the number of chromosomes in regular body cells -- number in gametes
homologous chromosomes
-same size and shape
-control same trait
crossing over
-homo. chromo. swap corresponding part to create variation
somatic
body cells
oogenesis
-creation of eggs through meiosis
-1 large egg bc its carring neutrients incase of fertilization and 3 polar bodies(die)which carry the extra genetic material
spermatogensis
-creation of sperm through meiosis
-four sperm
Sexuality
-aspect of your personality
-sexual orientation - who you are attracted to
-homosexual
-bisexual
-heterosexual
-gender roles - how you present yourself to the world - your outward expression of being male/female
Sexual Idenity
-inner sense of who you are
-transgender- sexual idenity that doesnt correspond with biological anatomy
Pubesent Changes
Male-
indirect-
-facial hair
direct-
-sex organs get bigger and develop
-ability to ejaculate
*fertile

Female-
indirect
-enlargement of breasts
-hips widen
direct
-sex organs enlarge
-period
*fertile

Both-
-growth spurt
-armpit/pubic hair
-sebaceous gland
-acne
-musle mass increases
-voice deepens (larger voicebox)
Male anatomy
Internal:
1.Testes
A.make sperm-located in semineferous tubuals- lots SA
B.make testosterone
2.epididymis
A.sperm mature here (motile) and are stored here
3.scrotum-
A.houses sperm at about 2 degrees celcis below body temp
4.vas deferens-
A.tube that transports sperm to uretha
5.urethra-
A.passage way for urine and sperm *not at same time*
6.prostate gland-secrets alkaline fluid to neutralize acidic vagina
7.seminal vesicles-create sugar(fructose)
8.Cowper's Gland-creates mucus -> present in pre-ejaculate
Passageway of Sperm
-spermogenesis in testes
-epididymis->vas deferens
->urethra->outside penis
semen is made of...
1.sperm - testes
2.fructose - seminal vesicle
3.alkine fluid - prostate gland
4.mucus - cowpers gland
Female anatomy
1.external genitalia
-labia-outer/inner
-clitoris
2.internal genitalia
-ovary
-contain at birth about 200.000 egga per ovary (maybe use 400 eggs)
-mature egg once every menstural cycle
-manufacture: estrogen and progesterone
2.Fallopian Tubes
-fimbre at ends
-cilia-rythmic beating
-site of fertilization
3.uterus (womb)
-site of implantation
-inner lining called endometrium
-cervix-neck of uterus
4.vagina (birth canal)
-allows for passageway of period and childbirth
Menstrual Cycle
a.menstration
-flow of blood (endometrium)
b.pre ovlatory phase
-pituitary gland in brain
-> secretes FSH and LH -> stimulates ripening of follicle (egg)
-follicle make estrogen -> stimulates thickening of endometrium (uterine lining)
-A spike LH occurs right before ovulation (LH surge)
c.ovulation
-mature follicle ripens releasing mature egg
-egg is quickly swept into fallopian tubes by cillia and fimbrae
-high chance for fertilization on day 14
d.post ovulatory phase
-ruptured follicle becomes corpus luteum -- makes progesterone-maintain endometrium
-increased progesterone/estrogen combination inhibits release of LH and FSH - corpus lutem distintgrates-progesterone levels plummet-lining shed
Pregnancy
a.Conception in fallopian tubes (fertilization)-zygote formed-blastocyst

b.implantation-embryo attaches to endometrium and secretes HGC to tell corpus leutum to keep making progesterone

c.pregnancy-amount of time fetus spends in mother 9mths placenta is connection btw. mother and fetus--drugs can influence development--mother gains weight (28 lbs), blood preasure increases, heart burn, morning sickness

d.labor-uterus contracts, cervix dilates, release oxytocin and relaxin, amniotic sac breaks

e.deliery-fetus flips, tie/cut umbilical cord, contractions continue - afterbirth

f.multipule births - 2 eggs 1 sperm - feternal - 1 egg 2 sperm - identical
Gregor Mendel
experimented with pea plants
-easy to grow
-sharp contrasting colors
-easy to control reproduction
purebreds
organisims that will always produce offspring with a paticular trait -- homozygous
hybreds
offspring of two organisims that were pure bred for different varities --heterozygous
gene
part of DNA that contains the instructions for building a protien
allele
variation od that gene
genotype
the genes that an organism contains for a trait
phenotype
the expression of the genotype
test cross
done when an organism shows the doninate phenotype but unknown genotype
incomplete dominance
when a cross btw. the two traits is expressed
Male anatomy
Internal:
1.Testes
A.make sperm-located in semineferous tubuals- lots SA
B.make testosterone
2.epididymis
A.sperm mature here (motile) and are stored here
3.scrotum-
A.houses sperm at about 2 degrees celcis below body temp
4.vas deferens-
A.tube that transports sperm to uretha
5.urethra-
A.passage way for urine and sperm *not at same time*
6.prostate gland-secrets alkaline fluid to neutralize acidic vagina
7.seminal vesicles-create sugar(fructose)
8.Cowper's Gland-creates mucus -> present in pre-ejaculate
Passageway of Sperm
-spermogenesis in testes
-epididymis->vas deferens
->urethra->outside penis
semen is made of...
1.sperm - testes
2.fructose - seminal vesicle
3.alkine fluid - prostate gland
4.mucus - cowpers gland
Female anatomy
1.external genitalia
-labia-outer/inner
-clitoris
2.internal genitalia
-ovary
-contain at birth about 200.000 egga per ovary (maybe use 400 eggs)
-mature egg once every menstural cycle
-manufacture: estrogen and progesterone
2.Fallopian Tubes
-fimbre at ends
-cilia-rythmic beating
-site of fertilization
3.uterus (womb)
-site of implantation
-inner lining called endometrium
-cervix-neck of uterus
4.vagina (birth canal)
-allows for passageway of period and childbirth
Menstrual Cycle
a.menstration
-flow of blood (endometrium)
b.pre ovlatory phase
-pituitary gland in brain
-> secretes FSH and LH -> stimulates ripening of follicle (egg)
-follicle make estrogen -> stimulates thickening of endometrium (uterine lining)
-A spike LH occurs right before ovulation (LH surge)
c.ovulation
-mature follicle ripens releasing mature egg
-egg is quickly swept into fallopian tubes by cillia and fimbrae
-high chance for fertilization on day 14
d.post ovulatory phase
-ruptured follicle becomes corpus luteum -- makes progesterone-maintain endometrium
-increased progesterone/estrogen combination inhibits release of LH and FSH - corpus lutem distintgrates-progesterone levels plummet-lining shed
Pregnancy
a.Conception in fallopian tubes (fertilization)-zygote formed-blastocyst

b.implantation-embryo attaches to endometrium and secretes HGC to tell corpus leutum to keep making progesterone

c.pregnancy-amount of time fetus spends in mother 9mths placenta is connection btw. mother and fetus--drugs can influence development--mother gains weight (28 lbs), blood preasure increases, heart burn, morning sickness

d.labor-uterus contracts, cervix dilates, release oxytocin and relaxin, amniotic sac breaks

e.deliery-fetus flips, tie/cut umbilical cord, contractions continue - afterbirth

f.multipule births - 2 eggs 1 sperm - feternal - 1 egg 2 sperm - identical
Gregor Mendel
experimented with pea plants
-easy to grow
-sharp contrasting colors
-easy to control reproduction
purebreds
organisims that will always produce offspring with a paticular trait -- homozygous
hybreds
offspring of two organisims that were pure bred for different varities --heterozygous
gene
part of DNA that contains the instructions for building a protien
allele
variation od that gene
genotype
the genes that an organism contains for a trait
phenotype
the expression of the genotype
test cross
done when an organism shows the doninate phenotype but unknown genotype
incomplete dominance
when a cross btw. the two traits is expressed
codominance
both alleles are active and both are fully expresses in the hybrid
dihybrid/trihybrid
3 or more alleles for one trait
chromosome of male
XY
chromosome of female
XX
sex linked trait
any gene located on a sex chromosome--your sex influences the frequency that it shows up
x linked disorders
1.hemophilia
2.muscular distrophy
3.red green color blindness
gene linkage
genes on the same chromosome tend to be inherited together
chromosomal mutations
-deletion
-duplication
-inversion
-reciprocal translation
nondisjunction disorders
klinefelter syndrome XXY
turners syndrome X
down syndrome extra 21st chromo