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63 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Hydrolysis is a(n) __________ reaction.
a. functional group transfer
b. electron transfer
c. rearrangement
d. condensation
e. cleavage
f. both b and d
e. cleavage
________ is a simple sugar (monosaccharide).
a. glucose
b. sucrose
c. ribose
d. chitin
e. both a and b
f. both a and c
f. both a and c (glucose and ribose)
In unsaturated fats, fatty acid tails have one or more:
a. single covalent bonds
b. double covalent bonds
b. double covalent bonds
______ are to proteins as _____ are to nucleic acids.
a. sugars; lipids
b. sugars; proteins
c. amino acids; hydrogen bonds
d. amino acids; nucleotides
d. amino acids; nucleotides
A denatured protein or DNA molecule has lost its:
a. hydrogen bonds
b. shape
c. function
d. all of the above
d. all of the above
long sequence of amino acids
protein
the main energy carrier
ATP
glycerol, fatty acids, phosphate
phospholipid
two strands of nucleotides
DNA
one or more sugar monomers
carbohydrate
Define condensation reaction.
through covalent bonding, two molecules combine to form a larger molecule
Define hydrolysis.
(type of cleavage reaction) a larger molecule is split by enzymes into two smaller molecules
four fused-together carbon rings
sterol
butter, lard, vegetable oils, and other natural fats
triglycerides
Fatty acid tails are:
a. hydrophobic
b. hydrophilic
a. hydrophobic
amino acids joined by peptide bonds with enzymes
polypetide chain
breaking weak bonds of a protein or any other large molecule that disrupts its 3-dimensional shape
denaturation
sucrose is a(n):
a. monosaccharide
b. oligosaccharide
c. polysaccharide
oligosaccharide (disaccharide)
starch, glycogen, cellulose
polysaccharides
alcohol with long-chain fatty acid tails
wax (repels water)
five-carbon sugar, phosphate group, nitrogen-containing base
nucleic acid
has glycerol backbone, two fatty acid tails, and a hydrophilic head with a phosphate group and another polar group

main materials of cell membranes
phospholipids
proposed the cell theory
Theodor Schwann
came up with the idea that all living cells come from preexisting living cells
Rudolf Virchow
maximum power of magnification of a light microscope
2,000
main function: packaging
Golgi bodies
main function: serves as the internal transportation system of a cell
endoplasmic reticulum
main function: disposal of hydrogen peroxide from the cell
peroxisomes
main function: primary cellular sites for the recapture of energy from carbohydrates
mitochondria
Starch is stored in ______.
plastids
fluid-filled sacs that may store food, ions, or water in cells
vacuoles
organelles that dramatically increase the surface area of a membrane
vacuoles
A "9+2" array refers to _______ and _______.
microtubules and cilia
main function: convert light energy to chemical energy stored in the chemical bonds of glucose or starch
chloroplasts
main function: synthesize subunits that will be assembled into two-part ribosomes in the cytoplasm
nucleoli
RNA carries out the genetic code translation process in association with ribosomes on this organelle.
endoplasmic reticulum
This organelle is involved in lipid production and protein transport.
endoplasmic reticulum
Adhesion proteins help cells of the same type:
locate, stick together, and remain the proper tissues
Communication proteins form:
channels that match up across the membranes of two cells; they let signals and substances flow rapidly between their cytoplasm (e.g. gap junction proteins)
Receptor proteins bind:
extracellular substances, such as as hormones, that trigger changes in cell activities
-cause target cells to change their activities
Passive transport proteins are channels that allow specific solutes to move through them without requiring any _______ input. The solute simply diffuses across the membrane, following _______________ gradients.
energy
concentration/electric
Integral proteins interact with ________ parts of the bilayer's phospholipids.
hydrophobic
Peripheral proteins are positioned at the membrane surface, not in the _________.
bilayer
When the net distribution of molecules is nearly uniform in 2 adjoining regions, we call this:
dynamic equilibrium
ATP-dependent transporters (active transporters) are known as:
ATPase pumps
(e.g. calcium pump, sodium-potassium pump)
__________ is the name for unassisted diffusion of a specific solute through a transport protein, DOWN its concentration gradient.
passive transport
In active transport, energy-driven protein motors help move a specific solute across the cell membrane __________ its concentration gradient.
against
Hypotonic solution is the one with _______ solutes.

fewer/more
fewer
Hypertonic solution is the one with _______ solutes.

fewer/more
more
Water tends to diffuse from ________ to ____________ fluids.
hypotonic to hypertonic
Isotonic solutions have the same solute concentrations, so water shows ______ net osmotic movement from one to the other.
no
What happens when any tissue fluid becomes drastically hypotonic?
too much water diffuses into cells, and they burst
What happens when fluid becomes too hypertonic?
an outward diffusion of water shrivels them
Phagocytosis is an active form of:
endocytosis
Explain phagocytosis.
a cell engulfs microbes, particles, and cellular debris
-mediated by receptors
Which organelle is not bound by a membrane?
A.Chloroplast
B.Ribosome
C.Mitochondrion
D.Vacuole
E.Lysosome
B.Ribosome
The sodium-potassium pump maintains which environment?
A.High potassium and low sodium concentrations inside the cell
B.Low potassium and low sodium concentrations inside the cell
C.Low potassium and high sodium concentrations inside the cell
D.High potassium and high sodium concentrations inside the cell
E.High potassium and high sodium concentrations outside the cell
A.High potassium and low sodium concentrations inside the cell
Which statement about cell membranes is true?
A.The polar portions of phospholipids in the membrane bilayer point to the interior of the membrane.
B.Some membranes have pores made of several protein molecules in order to allow passage of hydrophobic substances.
C.All membrane proteins extend only partway through the lipid bilayer.
D.Hydrophobic substances have an easier time passing through the membranes than do hydrophobic substances.
E.A cell membrane is a static matrix of lipids and proteins.
B.Some membranes have pores made of several protein molecules in order to allow passage of hydrophobic substances.
Microfilaments are commonly found in __________.
A.skeletal muscles
B.flagella
C.cilia
D.cytoplasm
E.All of the above
E.All of the above
Which cellular structures are not found in prokaryotes?
A.Ribosomes
B.Membrane-enclosed nuclei
C.Plasma membranes
D.Cytoplasm or cytosol
E.Both A and B
B.Membrane-enclosed nuclei
Which organic functional group is correctly named?
A.-CH3 = Ethyl
B.-NH2 = Amide
C.-COOH = Carboxyl
D.-OH = Oxide
E.All of the above
C.-COOH = Carboxyl
Which statement(s) about polysaccharides is(are) true?
I. They are extremely soluble in water.
II. They are composed of monosaccharide units.
III. They can be used for structural support.
A.I only
B.II only
C.III only
D.I and II only
E.II and III only
E.II and III only
A macromolecule is composed of smaller units called _________.
A.dimers
B.isotopes
C.monomers
D.polymers
E.isomers
C.monomers