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107 Cards in this Set

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process of differential reproduction by which a population becomes adapted to an environment
natural selection
meiosis reduces ___ cells to ___ cells, and ___ genetic variation.
meiosis reduces diploid cells to haploid cells, and increases genetic variation.
this disorder is caused by a recessive, single defect, and is marked by mental retardation; effects lessened through special diet
phenylketonuria
1:2:1 phenotypic ratio is observed if the alleles show incomplete dominance because
heterozygotes have an intermediate phenotype between both homozygotes.
trait is dominant. hetero woman marries hetero male, what is prob that trait is expressed?
.75
amino acid racemization is not good for aging of artifacts for these two reasons
sensitive to fluctuations in temperature, and cannot be used for mineralized fossils
cell placed into a hypertonic solution will
lose water
cell placed into hypotonic solution will
gain water
a single gene determines seed shape as well as influences starch grain formation. this is..
pleiotropy
some plants are green, others have a red hue, there is a gradient of red hue intensity across the population. this trait appears heritable because in each generation, same gradient is noticed. red hue probably caused by
multiple genes are likely involved
haplo-diploid mode of sex determination produces sperm by:
meiosis
male calico cats are rare because
a male would need to have XXY chromosomes
woman has a red green color blindness, married to a man with normal vision. what are their sons like?
half of sons will have normal vision, half will be red green colorblind.
linked genes
cross over at frequencies proportional to the distance between them
crossing over occurs between
nonsister chromatids
crossing over occurs at _____ locations along the lenght of the chromosome
random
squares in a pedigree mean
male
circles in a pedigree mean
female
a recessive trait is
only expressed in the homozygous state
a woman who is a carrier for hemophilia will pass the allele for the disease to
half of her sons and half of her daughters
measure of the amount of disorder in a system
entropy
the carbon atoms that were once in a molecule of glucose leave the krebs cycle as
carbon dioxide
PFK is an allosteric enyzme that regulates glycolysis. when cellular concentrations of ATP and citrate become high, they shut down PFK activity. this means that ATP and citrate are ___ of PFK and this is an example of ___
allosteric inhibitors/feedback inhibition
translation occurs in the
cytoplasm
transcription occurs in the
nucleus
most nitrogen on earth is found as
NH3
nitrogen more useful to people is in the form of
N2
nitrogen is fixated by a certain species of
prokaryotes
at the end of the reactions of glycolysis, the majority of the energy that was present in a molecule of glucose is
present in two molecules of pyruvate
DNP uncouples the electron transport chain of the mitochondria from ATP synthase. DNP carries proteons from the intermembrane space in to the matrix of the mitochondria, and decreases the concentration gradient between these two areas. a cell that is exposed to DNP will most likely produce
less ATP per glucose molecule than an unexposed cell
newly synthesized proteins destined for export have a unique signal sequence that directs them to the rough ER. these signal sequences are bound by ____ that help guide them to the ER.
signal recognition particles
a prokaryote has a cell wall of 90% peptidoglycan and no outer membrane. it is
gram positive
a prokaryote has a cell wall with very little peptidoglycan and an outer membrane. it is
gram negative
TF. prokaryotes tend to have smaller genomes than eukaryotes
T
TF. prokaryotes tend to have smaller cells than eukaryotes
T
TF. prokaryotes tend to have less structural complexity than eukaryotes
T
TF. prokaryotes tend to have fewer nutritional modes than eukaryotes
F
ATP is able to do cellular work because it
has a high energy phosphate bond that can by hydrolyzed
the NAD+ that is reduced to NADH during the Krebs cycle is regenerated
by the electron transport chain
what evidence supports that mitochondria and chloroplasts were once prokaryotic symbionts?
both divide by binary fission
cell respiration is energonic/exergonic
exergonic
what is needed for glycolysis to proceed normally
NAD+
in conjunction with ETC, atp synthase harnesses the energy that is released when protons flow back across the intermitochondrial membrane. this energy is used to drive the phosphorylation of ADP to ATP. this is an example of
oxidative phosphorylation
where is rRNA sunthesized?
nucleolus
lactic acid fermentation involves the reduction of pyruvate to lactic acid. the function of this is to
regenerate the supply of NAD+ in the cell
energetically, the role of oxygen during cellular respiration is to
accept electrons at the end of the ETC
gets energy and carbon from decaying organisms
chemoheterotroph
in humans, a cleft is autosomal dominant. frequency of people with a smooth chin is .64. what is frequency of cleft chin allele in this population?
.20
cystic fibrosis is caused by an autosomal recessive allele. individuals who are homozygous for the allele develop cystic fibrosis and, historically, died at a young age. in populations where the infectious disease cholera was historically common, the allele for cystic fibrosis is relatively high. this is because carriers of the allele tended to survive cholera more readily than noncarriers. this is an example of:
balancing selection
for the tRna anticodon 3' CAU 5', the corresponding nucleotides in the template strand of DNA would be
3' CAT 5'
which of the following phenotypes represent a heterochronous mutation: mouse without fur, cat that can see at birth, appearance of gills on fish, fly with a foot growing from its eye
cat that can see at birth--heterochronous has to do with time of development
olive oil is liquid at room temp, whereas butter is solid. fatty acid molecules from both of these fats are extracted and their chemical compositions compared. based just on the knowledge of their state at room temp, one can accurately conclude that teh fatty acids from olive oil contain(more/fewer/same) hydrogen atoms than the fatty acids found in butter.
fewer
for a particular gene with two alleles in a population in equilibrium, the frequency of the homozygous recessive individuals in the population is:
recessive allele frequency squared
dna polymerase always synthesizes starting at this end
3'
human infants weighing approximately 8 lbs at birth have a higher chance of survival than heavier and lighter infants. this is an example of:
stabilizing selection
the evolution of birds from a dinosaur is macro/micro evolution
macroevolution
when determining the sequence of amino acids, which strand of DNA is used?
the coding strand, which is the opposite of the template, or the same as the mRNA with the Us changed to Ts
there are many mutations in plants that alter their morphologies. a plant has tendrils where leaves would normally form. this condition results from a mutation in a single gene. this mutation could be categorized as
homeosis
amish people have a disease in higher frequency than everyone else. the amish of this area are descended from a small group of german immigrants and do not marry non amish people. this is an example of
founder effect
a reaction that results in the breakdown of a biological macromolecule would likely involve:
catabolism and hydrolysis
(cata buses break down a lot, just like catabolism is the break down of something)
Decomposition of a chemical compound by reaction with water, such as the dissociation of a dissolved salt or the catalytic conversion of starch to glucose
hydrolysis
species concept: can interbreed, produce fertile offspring
biological species concept
species concept: have a shared appearance
morphological species concept
species concept: are related in a common ancestor
evolutionary species concept
what is the best species concept for living sexual species
biological species concept
speciation where they are geographically isolated
allopatric speciation
speciation where they live in the same space or their ranges overlap
sympatric speciation
isolation--mate at different times of the day
temporal isolation
isolation--have different behaviors
behavioral isolation duh
isolation-- ranges sort of overlap, but not enough IE live on ground vs. live in tree
ecological isolation
isolation-- genitalia not compatible
mechanical isolation
post zygotic barrier, after fusion, the zygote just falls apart
hybrid breakdown
after fusion, the organism cannot live very long or it cant produce offspring
reduced hybrid viability
northern elephant seals were almost hunted to extinction. by 1890 there were 20 left. now there are 30000, but with little genetic variation. this is an example of
bottleneck effect
polypeptides are polymers of amino acids. the production of a polypeptide is a ______ reaction in which a _______ reaction occurs.
anabolic/condensation(dehydration)
okazaki fragments are produced along the lagging strand of dna because replication proceeds ____ the replication fork, and DNA polymerase adds nucleotides to the ______ end of the newly synthesized strand.
replication of lagging strand proceeds away, replication of leading strand proceeds toward. added to the 3' end.
this evolutionary force results in adaptive changes in a population
natural selection
5 animals survive a hurricane on a small raft, reach an island, collonize it. this is an example of _______ speciation
allopatric
which property of water is NOT due to hydrogen bonding: cohesion/low density of ice compared to water/high specific heat/high affinity for lipids
high affinity for lipids
female crabs choose those whom have big claws. this is:
sexual selection
what molecule provides electrons to photosystem 2
water
possible fates of the G3P in calvin cycle are:
glucose production/RuBP production
waxy coating that helps prevent water loss
cuticle
pores that allow for exchange of gases in plants
stomata
this feature is typical of an angiosperm but not of a moss (cones/gametangia/seeds/sporophyte stage)
seeds
a plant has large, bright red flowers. probable pollinator is:
bird
malaria is caused by an
apicomplexan
the reactions of the calvin cycle ___bolic, use _____ from the light dependent reactions, and involve the fixation of ___
anabolic, NADPH, CO2
rhodophytes (red algae) are an economically important group that has unique pigments known as
phycobilins
mosses only grow to be a few inches tall because they
lack vascular tissue
coconuts are produced by palms, the part we eat is:
triploid endosperm
all members of kingdom archaezoa are _____ that lack _____
anaerobes that lack mitochondria
during the light dependent reactions of photosynthesis, if the ETC associated with photosystem 2 is disrupted, the most immediate effect would be an inability to produce:
atp
diatoms are members of the kingdom stramenopila because they have
flagella with hair like projections
3 most primitive characteristics of plants
gametophyte, stomata, cuticle
pollen is the male/female/same as spore
male gametophyte
the organism that causes potato blight is ____. it was originally classified as a ____ due to convergent evolution, which resulted in similar morphology and nutritional mode
oomycete/fungus
you are studying a plant that has a mutation is the gene that encodes the enzyme rubisco, rendering that enzyme inactive. this plant is unable to
fix CO2
part of life cycle, produces haploid spores through meiosis
sporophyte
part of life cycle, produces _____ gametes through mitosis
gametophyte, haploid gametes
role of vascular tissue:
sugar and water transport, adaptation to a dry environment
plant that has male and female reproductive parts
dioecious
this causes african sleeping sickness
kinetoplastids
these are involved in the light dependent reactions of photosynthesis
water, adp, NADP+
green algae and true plants are considered sister groups because they share many common characteristics. which of the following is not a shared characteristic? (presence of photosynthetic pigments chlorophyll a and b, cell walls composed of cellulose, storage of carbs as starch, the are all multicellular
multicellular
microspore
male
megaspore
female