Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/59

Click to flip

59 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Light Microscrope
Living specimans
frog eggs
plant and animal cells
nucleus
most bacteria
mitochondira
Catabolism
destructive metabolism: breaking down in living organisms of more complex substances into simpler ones, releases energy
Anabolism
construtive metabolism: the synthesis in living organisms of more complex systems into simpler ones
Hydrolysis
Lices or slits molecules by adding water-digestion
Properties of Water
Polar Covalent bonds
hydrogen bonds to other molecules
high surface tension
high heat of vaporization
homogenous mixture
less dense in solid form
PH=4
Functional Groups
Hydroxyl
Amino
Carbonyl
Sulfhydrl
Carbonxyl
Phosphate
Carbohydrates
Sugars and Polymers
Fuel and C source
Energy, raw materials, structural compounds
Lipids
Do not consist of polymers
Hydrocarbon tails
Little/no affinity for water
Gycerol, fatty acids, steroids
energy storage, membranes, receptors, defense, structure
Steroids
Lipids w/ carbon skeleton w/ four fused rings
In cell membranes
Precurser for some hormones
Proteins
Structural Support, storage, transport, signaling, impulses
Polypeptide (polymer of amino acids)
20 amino acids build all proteins
Nucleic Acid
Polymers on nucleotides (nitrogenous base, pentose, phosphate group) heriditary code for amino acid sequence
Coenzyme
A cofactor that makes catalysis happen
Central Vacule
plant cell- hold reserves of organic compounds and water
Tonoplast
plant cell- central vacuolus membrane
Cell Wall
plant cell- protect cell, gives support, prevents drying
Mitochondira
sites of cellular resp.
Chloroplasts
plant cell- site of photosynthesis
Peroxisomes
produce hydrogen peroxide and convert it to water
Microtubles
shape the cell, guide movement, seperate chomomsomes in dividing cells
Cilia
special arrangemtent of microtubles locomoter appendages of some cells
Microfilaments
cellular motility
Golgi apparatus
modification of products of rough ER, maufacture certain macromolecules
Rough ER
produces proteins and membranes that are distributed by transport vesicles
Smooth ER
syntheisizes lipids, metabolizes carbs, stores calcium, detoxes
Ribosomes
carry out protein syntheis
Chromatin
jumble of uncoiled DNA in nucleous, when cells gets ready to divide the chromatin condenses and becomes chormosomes
Plasmodesmata
strands of cytoplasm that extends through plant cell walss and connects adjoining cells
Golgi Apparatus
receives transport vesicles from rough ER (finishes, sorts, ships)
Basic features of Cells
plasma membrane
semi fluid cytosol
chromosomes and ribosomes
Organelles w/ membranes
ER?
Chloroplasts
Mitochondria
Nucleous
Cytoskeleton
Facilitated Diffusion
Transport proteins speed movement of molecules across plasma membrane
Passive transport by proteins
Active Transport
against consitration gradiant
engery
sodium potassium pump
Simple Diffusion
passes through membrane
aid of intermeidary such as integral membrane protein
FADH2
donate electrons to transport chain
powers ATP synthesis via oxidative phosporilation
NAD+
conezyme
helps enzymes transfer elctrions during redox reactions
Cytochome
Iron containing protein component of electron transport chain in mito. and chloro.
Chemiosmosis
uses energy in for of H+ gradient across membrane to drive cellular work
Glycolysis
produces 2 ATP and 2 NADH per glucose
splitting of sugar
Makes ATP
Glycolyisis
Krebs
Electron Transport chain
Oxidative Phosphorilation
Fermentation
Anarobic
final e- accpetor is pyruvate or acetllaldehye
2 ATP
Respiration
Aerobic
Final e- acceptor O2 to ATP from ETC
Krebs to ATP
makes 38 ATP
C3 Plants
produce less food on hot days and stoma close and use O2 instead of Co2 to do Calvin cycle by makes
decreases C compouds from calvin cycle
C4 plants
forms 4 c compounds
Ethanol Gas
ripens fruit
Cancer Cells
No cell cycle control
no need for growth factors
unusual # of chromosomes
Interphase
phase cells are in most
90% of cycle
grows and copies
Products of Meiosis
1- 2 Haploid cells
2- 4 Haploid cells
Epistasis
interaction between nonallelic genes in which one comination has a dominant effect
Nondisjuction
chromosomes don't seperate in meio. 1
sister sromatis don't seperate in meio. 2
1 gamete recives 2 of some chromosomes and 1 does not receive
Karyotype
chromsomes of a cell usually desplayed as a systematized arrangement of chromosome pairs in descending order of size
DNA ligase
An enzyme that joins Okazake fragments into single DNA strand
DNA polymerase
catalyses elongation at rep. fork
Transcription
synthesis of RNA under direction of DNA
Translation
syntheisis of polypeptide
RNA polymerase
pries DNA apart and hooks together RNA on template
Translocation
chromosomal segment to new position
Retrovirus
RNA-DNA by reverse transcriptase
Prions
proteins cause infectious disease
Transformation
alteration of bacterial cell's DNa by uptake of naked foreign DNA from environment