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37 Cards in this Set

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define crossing over
exchange of genes between homologous chromosomes and producing new combinations of genes
Walter sutton
genes have places on chromosomes
Linked genes
linkage groups
linked genes dont undergo indp. assort.

linkage groups contain linked genese but undergo indp assort.
define polyploidy
condition which organism has extra set of chromosome, fatal in animals
gene mutation
any chemical molecule that affects DNA
point mutation
affect only a single nucleotide
Multiple alleles
3 or more alleles of the same gene that code for a single trait like ABO and Rh
polygenic traits
human traits controlled by a number of genes suck as height, weight, skin color
Turner syndrome
female, failure to develop sex organs
klinefelter syndrome
male, cannot have children
amniocentesis
chorionic villus biopsy
amnio- removal of fluid from sac surrounding embryo

CVB- removal of embryonic cell sample
Down syndrome
extra copy of chromosome
Fitness
combination of physical traits and behaviors that helps organisms survive and reproduce
common descent
species descended form 1 common ancestor
adaptation
ORGANISM BECOMES SUITED TO ENVIRONMENT
HUTTON
proposed rocks mountains valleys been changed by heat cold, weather
Lyell
agreed earth changed slowly over time
relative dating
technique used to determine age or fossil in diff layers of rock
absolute dating
name ofr radioactive dating since its so accurate
how is earths history divided?
into eras, eras into periods, periods into epochs
sedimentary rock
particles broken from rocks when exposed to heat rain, particles turn into silt clay sand and settle on bottom of rivers
what do fossil records show
change followed change on earth
homologous structures
structures that develop from same body parts
Vestigial organs
serve no useful purpose
Lamarack
recognized living things changed over time
lamarck thought . . that organs could increase in size or shape depending on organisms needs
true he thought that but it was wrong
lamarack thought that if u do not use a limb, it would atrophy. also thought things aquired in life are passed on such as long arms
true. . but he was wrong
artificial selection
allowed only best organisms to produce off spring
who did the moth experiment
kettlewell
gene pool
members of a population who share common group of genes
niche
combo of an organisms "profession" and living place which no 2 species can occupy at the same time
reproductive isolation
no interbreeding
adaptive radiation/ divergent evolution
# of diff species move away from commmon ancestor
convergent evolution
different species similar in appearance and behavior
analogous structures
structuures similar in appearance and function but different internal structures
gradualism
theroy of evolutionary change slowly
equilibrium
organismn didnt change very much