Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/53

Click to flip

53 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
gamete
sex cell, usually haploid
zygote
fertilized cell, usually diploid
chromatin
all the DNA in a nucleus
gene
a protein recipe - made of DNA
chromosome
1 piece of double-stranded DNA
chromatid
one strand of a pair of recently copied strands of DNA - paired with a 'sister chromatid'
centromere
joins a pair of chromatids at a point on the strand
homologous pair of chromosomes
a pair of chromosomes that have the same set of genes on them
diploid
having pairs of chromosomes
haploid
having single strands of chromosomes
autosome
a chromosome that is not the sex chromosome
sex chromosome
has the male or female traits - known as the X and Y chromosomes
karyotype
an image giving the structure of all chromosomes during metaphase; helps diagnose genetic problems
cell cycle
describes the different phases of life of a cell:
M, G1, S, G2
interphase
describes G1, S, G2 in the cell cycle
G1 phase
cell growth - cell spends most of its time in this phase
S phase
genetic material duplicates during this phase
G2
cell prepares to divide
mitosis
process by which an exact copy of a cell is made
phases of mitosis
Prophase
Metaphase
Anaphase
Telophase
cytokinesis
process by which cytoplasm is divided into 2 just before mitosis is completed
3 checkpoints of cell cycle
G1 checkpoint
G2 checkpoint
M checkpoint (metaphase)
cancer
caused by uncontrolled cell growth
benign tumor
an abnormal mass of essentially normal cells
malignant tumor
masses of cells that result from the reproduction of cancer cells
metastasis
spread of cancer cells beyond their original site
spindles
a football shaped framework of microtubules that guide chromosomes' movements
centrioles
the organization center of the spindle structures
cell plate
a disk containing cell wall material - forms insided the cell and grows outward
meisosis
the type of cell division hat produces 4 cells - each of which is a gamete (haploid)
phases of meiosis
PMAT I & II

prophase
metaphase
anaphase
telophase
crossing over
the exchange of parts of homologous chromosomes in meiosis
independent assortment
chromosomes randomly chosing which gamete they would go to
gametogenesis
the making of new gametes through meiosis
spermatogenesis
the making of new sperm
Oogenesis
the making of new eggs
Sperm
a type of gamete found in a male that has X or Y chromosomes, a sex cell
Ovum
a type of gamete in a female that has only X chromosomes, a sex cell
asexual reproduction
the process of (one cell becoming two cells) a cell duplicating itself
sexual reproduction
two parent cells try to combine to make an offspring that contains some of genes from each
binary fission
the process of asexual reproduction in prokaryotes cells in which the DNA duplicates and the cell splits
Parthenogenesis
Production of offspring by female animals from unfertilized ova having the same chromosome number (haploid or diploid) as the parent
fragmentation
Fragmentation is a form of asexual reproduction where an organism is split into fragments either intentionally or not. Each of these fragments develops into a mature, fully grown new organism and if the organism is split any further the process is repeated
Vegetative propagation
the offspring/clone has the identical genetics (cactus, drops stems that develp roots and become new plants)
Budding
a form of asexual reproduction where a bud or outgrowth from the end or side of the parent cell emerges and develops into a new organism
Disjunction
separation of homologous chromosomes (or sister chromatids) during anaphase
Non-disjunction
when a chromosome pair fails to separate correctly during cell division, resulting in daughter cells which have missing or extra chromosomes
Chromosomal mutations
when there is a change with the DNA sequence within a chromosome
Deletion
when a fragment of a chromosome is lost
Duplication
when a part of a chromosome is repeated
Inversion
the reversing of a fragment of the original chromosome
Translocation
a fragment of one chromosome attaches to a nonhomologous chromosome
Trait
a variation of a particular character