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66 Cards in this Set

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Deoxyribose
A phosphate group
adenine, guanin, cytosine, thymine
base pairs
replication fork
where the two chains separate during replication
DNA polymerase
enzyme that binds to chains to create more nucleotides
mutation
change in the nucleotide sequence
mRNA
consists of rna nucleotides, single uncoiled chain, carries info from nucleus to cytosol
tRNA
single chain of 80 RNA nucleotides, hairpin shape, binds to specific amino acids, 45 varieties
rRNA
globular form, makes up ribosomes where protins are made
transcription
process by which genetic information is copied from DNA to RNA
RNA polymerase
primary transcription enzyme
promoters
specific areas of DNA that RNA polymerase binds to
protien synthesis
production of proties by the three types of RNA
genetic code
correlation between nucleotide sequence and an amino-acid sequence
start codon
AUG
stop codon
UAA, UAG, UGA
translation
process of assembling polypeptides from information encoded in mRNA
X-linked genes/Y-linked genes
genes found on the X or Y chormosome
sex linkage
the presence of a gene on a sex chromosome
linkage group
the genes found on the same chromosome
chromosome map
a diagram that shows the linear sequence of genes on a chromosome
map unit
when two genes are separated by crossing-over 1 percent of the time
point mutation
the addition, subtraction or romoval of a single nucleotide
sickle-cell anemia
caused by point-mutation that subsitutes adenine for thymine in a single DNA codon
frame shift mutation
when the addition or deletion of a single nucleotide causes the remaining nucleotide to be incorrectly grouped
Huntington's disease
caused by a dominant allele located on an autosome=> autosomal-dominant pattern of inheritance. eventually causes death
genetic marker
short section of DNA known to have a close association with a particular gene nearby
recessive, X-linked diseases
colorblindness, hemophelia, Duchenne muscular dystrophy
downs's syndrome
extra chromosome 21
amniocytosis, chronic villi sampling
ways for physicians to test the health of a fetus
phenylketonuria/ PKU
genetic disorder in which the body cannot metabolize the amino acid phenylalanine, causes severe brain damage
aquired trait
one that is not determined by genes
population
interbreeding single-species group
uniformitarianism
the geological structure of Earth resulted from cycles of observable processes which operate continuously through time
fitness
how well-adapted and able to reproduce an animal is in it's environment
taxonomy
branch of biology that names and groups organisma according to their characteristics and evolutionary history
levels of classification
kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species
species name
genus, species identifier
(binomial nomanclature)
phylogeny
evolutionary history
kingdom archarbacteria
unicellular prokaryotes with distinctive cell membranes
kingdom eubacteria
unicellular prokaryotes
kingdom protista
eukaryotic, mostly single-celled organisms
kingdom fungi
heterotrophic unicellular and multicellular eukaryotic organisms
kingdom plantae
multicellular plants
kindom animalia
eukaryotic multicellular heterotrophic organisms
domains
3 domains:
domain archaea: kingdom archaebacteria
domain bacteria: kingdom eubacteria
domain eukarya: all other kingdoms
protozoa
single-celled microscopic organisms, noted for their ability to move independently
zoo plankton
population of organisms that constitutes oone of the primary sources of of energy in aquatic ecosytems
multiple fission
form of cell division that results in a number of identical individuals
conjugation
individuals from opposite mating strains pair and exchange genetic material. more complex in protozoa than in bacteria
sarcodina
sarcodines, pseudopodia, heterotrophis; some parasitic, Amoeba, Radiolaria, Naegleria
ciliophora
ciliates, cilia, heterotrophic; some parasitic, Paramecium, Tetrahymena, Balantidium
Zoomastigina
zooflagellates, flagella, heterotrophic; some parasitic, Trypanosoma, Leishmania, Giardia, Trichonympha
Sporozoa
sporozoans, no locomotion, heterotrophic; some parasitic, Plasmodium, Toxoplasma
cytoplasmic streaming
internal flowing of a cell's cytoplasm
test
shell
foraminifera
ancient group of shelled sarcodines found primarily in the ocean
radiolarians
among oldest known group of sarcodines, live in shallow, open water
amebic dysentery
caused by Entamoeba histolytica
pellicle
a clear elastic layer of protien that surrounds the cell membrane
macronucleus
contains multiple copies of DNA and is responsible for metabolic and developmental functions
micronucleus
participates in the exchange of genetic material between individuals during conjugation
trypanosomiasis
sleeping sickness transferred by the tsetse fly in africa
Chagas' disease
transferred by "kissing bug", causes fever and severe heart damage
giardiasis
caused by giardia lamblia, causes severe diarrhea and intestinal cramps
toxoplasmosis
caused by toxoplasma gondii, harmful for infants or fetus'
malaria
caused by plasmodium, causes severe chills, fever, sweating, fatigue and great thirst, can be transferred by sporozoites, erozoites or gametocytes