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28 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
organic molecule
carbon-based molecule
inorganic molecule
non-carbon-based molecule
hydrocarbon
organic molecule composed of only carbon and hydrogen atoms
functional group
group of atoms within a molecule that interacts in predictable ways with other molecules
hydrophilic
attracts water molecules
monomer
small molecular unit that is the building block of a larger molecule
polymer
long chain of small molecular units
carbohydrate
organic compound made of sugar molecules
monosaccharide
sugar containing one sugar unit
disaccharide
sugar containing two monosaccharides
polysaccharide
long polymer chain made up of simple sugar monomers
starch
polysaccharide in plant cells that consists entirely of glucose monomers
glycogen
polysaccharide in animal cells that consists of many glucose monomers
cellulose
polysaccharide consisting of glucose monomers that reinforces plant-cell walls
lipid
one of a class of water-avoiding compounds
hydrophobic
avoids water molecules
fat
organic compound consisting of a three-carbon backbone (glycerol) attached to three fatty acids
saturated fat
fat in which all three fatty acid chains contain the maximum possible number of hydrogen atoms
steroid
lipid molecule with four fused carbon rings
cholesterol
steroid molecule present in the plasma membranes of animal cells
protein
polymer constructed from a set of 20 amino acid monomers
amino acid
monomer that makes up proteins; contains carboxyl and amino functional groups
polypeptide
chain of linked amino acids
denaturation
loss of normal shape of a protein due to heat or other factor
activation energy
minimum amount of energy required to trigger a chemical reaction
catalyst
agent that speeds up chemical reactions
substrate
specific reactant acted on by an enzyme
active site
region of an enzyme into which a particular substrate fits