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180 Cards in this Set

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cells- 7
collection of living matter enclosed by a barrier that seperates the cell from its surroundings; basic unit of all forms of life
cell theory
idea that all living things are composed of cells, cells are the basic units of a structure and function in living things, and ner cells are produced from existing cells
nucleus
the center of the atom which contains the protons and neutrons; in cells, structures that contains the cell's genetic material (DNA) and controls the cell's activities
eukaryote
organism whose cells contain nuclei
prokaryote
unicellular organism lacking a nucleus
organelle
speciallized structure that preforms important cellular functions within a eukaryotic cell
cytoplasm
material inside the cell membrane- not including the nucleus
nuclear envelope
layer of two membranes that surrounds the nucleus of a cell
chromatin
granular material visible within the nucleus; consists of DNA tightly coiled around proteins
chromosome
threadlike structure within the nucleus containing the genetic information that is passed from one generation of cells to the next
nucleolus
small, dense region within most nuclei in which the assmebly of proteins begin
ribosome
small particle in the cell on which proteins are assembled; made of RNA and protein
endoplasmic reticulum
internal membrane system in cells in which lipid components of the cell membrane are assembled and soem proteins are modified
Golgi apparatus
stack of membranes in the cell that modifies, sorts, and packages proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum
lysosome
cell organelle filled with enzymes needed to break down certain materials in the cell
vacuole
cell organelle that stores materials such as water, salts, proteins, and carbohydrates
mitochondrion
cell organelle that converts the chemical energy stored in food into compounds that are more conveinent for the cell to use
chloroplast
organelle found in cells of plants and some other organisms that captures energy from sunlight and converts it into chemical energy
cytoskelton
network of protein filaments within some cells that helps the cell maintain its shape and is invovled in many forms of cell movement
centriole
one of two tiny structures located in the cytoplasm of animal cells near the nuclear envelope
cell membrane
thin, flexible barrier around a cell; regulates what enters and leaves the cell
lipid bilayer
double-layered sheet that forms the core of nearly all cell membranes
concentration
the mass of solute in a given volume of solution, or mass/volume
cell wall
strong supporting layer around the cell membrane in plants, algae, and some bacteria
diffusion
process by which molecules tend to move from an area where they are more concentrated to an area where they are less concentrated
equilibrium
when the concentration of a solute is the same throughout a solution
osmosis
diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane
isotonic
when the concentration of two solutions is the same
hypertonic
when compraring two solutions, the solution with the greater concentration of solutes
hypotonic
when compraring two solutions. the solution with the lesser concentration of solutes
facilitated diffusion
movement of specific molecules across cell membranes through protein channels
active transport
energy-requiring process that moves material across a cell membrane against a concentration difference
endocytosis
proces by which a cell takes material into the cell by infolding of the cell membrane
phagocytosis
process by which extensions of cytoplasm surround and enguld large particles and take them into the cell
pinocytosis
process by which a cell takes in liquid from the surrounding enviorment
exocytosis
process by which a cell releases large amounts of material
cell specialization
the process in which cells develop in different ways to preform different tasks
tissue
group of similar cells that preform a particular function
organ
group of tissues that work together to preform closely related functions
organ system
group of organs that work together to preform a specific function
autotroph-8
organism that can capture energy from sunlight or chemicals and use it to produce its own food from inorganic compounds; also called a producer
heterotroph
organism that obtains energy from the foods it consumes; also called a consumer
adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
one of the principal chemical compounds that living things use to store and release energy
photosynthesis
process by which plants and some other organisms use light energy to convert water and carbon fioxide into oxygen and high-energy cerbohydrates such as sugards and starches
pigment
light- absorbing molecule
chlorophyll
principal pigment of plants and other photosythetic organisms; captures light energy
thylakoid
saclike phtosythetic membrane found in chloroplasts
photosystem
light-collecting units of the chloropasts
stroma
region outside the thylakoid membranes in chloroplasts
NADP+
one of the carrier molecules that transfers high-energy electrons from chlorophyll to other molecules
light-dependent reactions
reactions of photosythesis that uses energy from light to produce ATP and NADHPH
ATP synthase
large protein that uses energy from H+ ions to bind ADP and a phosphate group together to produce ATP
Calvin cycle
reactions of photocynthesis in which energy from ATP and NADPH is used to build high-energy compounds such as sugars
calorie-9
term used by scientist to measure the energy stored in foods; 1000 calories
glycolysis
first step in releasing energy of glucose, in which a molecule of glucose is broken down into two molecules of pyruvic acid
cellular respiration
process that releases energy by breaking down glucose and other food molecules in the presence of oxygen
NAD+
electron carrier involved in glycolysis
fermentation
process by which cells release energy in the absence of oxygen
anaerobic
process that does not require oxygen
aerobic
procees that requires oxygen
krebs cycle
second stage of cellular repsiration, in which pyruvic acid is briken down into carbon dioxide in a series of energy-extracting reactions
electon transport chain
a series of proteins in which the high-energy electrons from the Krebs cycle are used to convert ADP into ATP
cell division-10
procces by which a cell divides into two new daughter cells
mitosis
part of a eukaryotic cell division during which the cell nucleus divides
cytokinesis
division of the cytoplasm during cell division
chromatid
one of the two identical "sister" parts of the duplicated chromosome
centromere
area where the chromatids of a chromosomes are attached
interphase
period of the cell cycle between cell divisions
cell cycle
series of events that cells go through as they grow and divide
prophase
first and longest phase of mitosis, during which the chromosomes become visible and the centrioles seperates and take up poisitions on the opposite sides of nucleus
centriole
one of two tiny structures located in the cytoplasm of animal cells near envelope
spindle
fanlike microtuble structure that helps seperate the chromosomes during mitosis
metaphase
second pahse of mitiosis, during which the chromosomes line up across the center of the cell
anaphase
the third phase of mitosis, during which the chromosome pairs separate and move toward opposite poles
telophase
fourth and final phase of mitosis, during which the chromosomes begin to disperse into a tangle of dense material
cyclin
one of a family of closely related proteins that regulate the cell cycle in eukaryotic cells
cancer
disorder in which soem of the body's own cells lose the ability to control growth
genetics-11
scientific study of heredity
fertilization
process in sexual reproduction in which male and female reproductive cells join to form a new cell
true-breeding
term used to describe organisms that produce offspring identical to themselves if allowed to self-pollinate
trait
specific characteristics that caries from one individual to another
hybrid
offspring of crossed between parents with different traits
gene
sequence of DNA that codes for a protein and thus determines a trait
allele
one of a number of differnet forms of a gene
segregation
seperation of allels during gamete formation
gamete
specialized cell involved in sexual reproduction
probability
likelihood that a particular event will occur
Punnett square
digram showing the gene cobinations that might result froma genetic cross
homozygous
term used to refer to an organism that has two identical alleles for a particualr trait
heterozygous
term used to refer to an organism that has two different alleles for the same trait
phenotype
physical characteristics of an organism
genotype
genetic makeup of an organism
independent assortment
independent segregation of genes during the formation of gametes
incomplete dominance
situation in which one allele is not completely dominant over another
codominance
situation in which both alleles of a gene contribute to the phenotype of the organism
multiple alleles
three or more alleles of the same gene
polygenic traits
trait controlled by two or more genes
homlogous
term used to refer to chromosomes that each have a corresponding chromosome from the opposite-sex parent
diploid
term used to refer to a cell that contains both sets of the homologous chromosomes
haploid
term used to refer to a cell that contains only a single set of chromosomes and therefore only a single set of genes
meiosis
process by which the number of chromosomes per cell is cut in half through the seperation of homologous chromosomes in a diploid cell
tetrad
structure containing 4 chromatids that forms during meiosis
crossing-over
process in which homologous chromosomes exchange portions of their chromatids during meiosis
gene map
diagram showing that relative locations of each known gene on a particular chromosome
transformation-12
process in which one strain of bacteria is changed by a gene or genes from another strain of bacteria
bacteriophage
virus that infects bacteria
nucleiotide
monomer of nucleic acids made up of a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base
base pairing
principle that bonds in DNA can form only between adeine and thymine and between guanine and cytosine
chromatin
granular material visible within the nucleus; consists of DNA tightly coiled around proteins
histone
protein molecule around which DNA is tightly coiled in chromatin
replication
copying process by which a cell duplicates its DNA
DNA polymerase
enzyme involved in DNA replication that joins individual nucleotides to produce a DNA molecule
gene
sequence of DNA that codes for a protein and thus determines a trait
messenger RNA
RNA molecule that carries copies of instructions for the assembly of amino acida into proteins from DNA to the rest of the cell
ribosomal RNA
type of RNA that makes up the major part of ribosomes
transfer RNA
type of RNA molecle that transfers amino acids to ribosomes during protein sythesis
transcription
process in which part of the nucleotide sequence of DNA is copied into a complementary sequence to another
RNA polymerase
enzyme similar to DNA polymerase that binds to DNA and seperated the DNA strands during transcription
promoter
region of DNA that indicates to an enzyme where to bind to make RNA
intron
sequence of DNA that is not involved in coding for a protein
exon
expressed sequence of DNA; codes for a protein
codon
three-nucleotide sequence on messenger RNA that codes for a single amino acid
translation
decoding of a mRNA message into a polypeptide chain
anticodon
group of three bases of a tRNA molecule that are complementary to an mRNA codon
mutation
change in a DNA sequence that affects genetic information
point mutation
gene mutation involvin changes in one or a few nucleotides
frameshift mutation
mutation that shifts the "reading" frame of the genetic message by inserting or deleting a nucleotide
polyploidy
condition in which an organisms has extram sets of chromosomes
operon
group of genes operating together
operartor
region of chromosome in an operon to which the repressor binds when the operon is "turned off"
differentiation
process in which cells become specialized in structure and function
hox gene
series of genes that controls the differentation of cells and tissues in an embryo
evolution-15
change in a kind of orgnaism over time; process by which mogern organisms have descended from ancient organisms
theory
well-tested explanation that unifies a broad range of observations
fossil
preserved remains or evidence of an ancient organism
artificial selection
selection by humans for breeding of useful traits from the natural variation among different organisms
struggle for existence
competition among members of a species for food, living space, and the other necesities of life
fitness
ability of an organism to survive and reproduce in its enviorment
adaptation
inherited characteristic that increases an organism's chance of survival
survival of the fittest
process by which individuals tht are better suited to their enviorment survive and reproduce most successfully; also called natural slecetion
natural selection
process by which individuals that are better suited to their enviorment survive and reproduce most successfully; also called survival of the fittest
descent with modification
principal that each living species has descended, with changes, from other species over time
common descent
principal that all living things were derived from common ancestors
homologous structure
structures that have different mature forms in different organisms but develop from the same embryonic tissues
vestigial organ
organ that serves no useful function in an organism
taxonomy
discipline of classifying arganisms and assigning each organism a unviersally accepted name
binomial nomenclature
classification system in which each species is assigned a two-part scientific name
genus
group of closely related species, and the first part of the scientific name in binomial nomenclature
taxon
group of level of organization into which organisms are classified
family
group of genera that share many characteristics
order-18
group of similar families
class
group of similar orders
phylum
group of closley releated classes
kingdom
large taxonomic group, consisting of closely related phyla
phylogeny
the study of evolutionary relationships among organisms
evolutionary classification
method of grouping organisms together according to their evolutionary history
derived character
characteristic that appears in recent parts of a lineage, but not in its older members
cladogram
diagram that shows the evolutionary relationships among a group of organisms
molecular clock
model that uses DNA comparisons to estimate the length of time that two species have been evolving independently
domain
most inclusive taxonomic category; larger than a kingdom
bacteria
domain of unicellular prokaryotes that have cell walls containing peptidoglycan
eubacteria
kingdom of unicellular prokaryotes whose cell walls are made up of peptidoglycan
archaea
domain of unicellular prokaryotes that have cell walls that do not contain peptidoglycan
archaebacteria
kingdom of unicellular prokaryotes whose cell walls do not contain peptidglycan
eukarya
domain og all organisms whose cells have nuclei, including protists, plants, fungi, and animals
protista
kingdom composed of eukaryote that are not classified as plants, animals, or fungi
fungi
kingdom composed of heterotrophs; many obtain energy and nutrients from dead organic matter
plantae
kingdom of multicellular photosynthetic autotrophs that have cell walls containing cellulose
animalia
kingdom of multicellular eukaryotic heterotrophs whose cells do not have cell walls
prokaryote-19
unicellular organism lacking a nucleus
bacillus
rod-shaped prokaryote
coccus
spherial prokaryote
spirillum
spiral or corkscrew -shaped prokaryote
chemoheterotroph
organism that makes organic carbon molecules from carbon dioxide using energy from chemical reactions
photoautotroph
organism that uses energy from sunlight to convery carbon dioxide and water to carbon compounds
chemoautotroph
organism that makes organic carbon molecule from carbon dioxide using energy from chemical reactions
obigate aerobe
organism that requires a constant supply of oxygen in order to live
obligate anaerobe
organism that cannot live in the presence of oxygen
binary fission
type of asexual reproduction in which an orgnism replicates its DNA and divides in half, producing two identical daughter cells
conjugation
form of sexual reproduction in which paramecia and some prokaryotes exchange genetic information