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272 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
type of algae that is single celled and sores its food as starch
green
multicellular algae also known as seaweed
brown
red tide is usually associated with the algae known as
dinoflagellates
The first land plants to contain transport tissues were spore-producing
ferns
the structure in mosses that collects water for a single cell only is called
rhizoid
what is the literal meaning for the term "gymnosperm"?
naked seed
What is associated with gymnosperms?
lack of flowers
leaves with parallel veins are found in the anglosperems known as
monocots
grasses and palm trees are examples of
monocots
water and minerals from the soil are transported up the plant by what?
xylem
what plant part is an extension of a single cell?
root hair
water transport across a root, and food storage, are functions of what?
the cortex
the layer of cells just outside of the root's central cylinder is known as the endodermis
endodermis
the innermost cells of the root's central cylinder, forming an x-shape
xylem
what divides to form new root branches
pericycle cells
mitosis is most common in what root zone?
meristematic
which zone of a root would contain a variety of fully-functioning tissues?
maturation
Pith cells in monocot stems
store food
a thick layer of dead cells is found in the root's
root cap
the innermost heartwood region of a tree trunk is made of
old xylem
the vascular cambium of a tree trunk that grows outward, away from the center, develops into cells that are specialized to
carry food
cork cambium is a specialized tiddue that produces
dead bark
which layer of leaf cells is specialized to carry on photosynthesis?
palisade layer
the function of the spongy layer is to
store carbon dioxide
stomata are opened and closed by the
guard cells
what is true of the upper epidermis of a leaf a leaf?
it is clear
when a plant lacks water what happends?
guard cells collapse, closing th e stomate
the ability of water molecules to stick to other water molecules is known as
cohesion
capilliary action allows water to rise up a tree about
2-3 inches
Root pressure is caused by the process known as
osmosis
most of the force that pulls water up a try is provided by this process
transpirtation
auxins can cause plante stems to grow toward the light in the
positive photropism
the roots of plants tend to show
positive gravitropism
plant hormones that were first discovered in a fungus growing on rice plants
gibberellin
plant hormones that cause lateral stem growth
cytokinins
auxins cause apical dominance, which means that stems tend to
grow
straight up
the hormone that stimulates fruit growth
gibberellin
if the embryo inside of a seed is not growing at all, it is said to be
dormant
fruit ripens quickly when exposed to
ethylene gas
which wavelength of visible light is not absorbed well by chloropyll
green
which accessory plant pigment does not absorb yellow light
xanthophyll
which region of the chlorplast consists of membranes for the light reactions
grana
the first steps in photosynthesis are known as
light reactions
the element actually absorbed by light to release an electron is
magnesium
when magnesium loses an electron, it replaces it by taking an electron from what other element?
water
NADH is the high energy end product of what?
light reactions
In the dark reactions, RuBP plus carbon dioxide forms a molecue that splits into two
PGA
how many carbon atoms are found in a single molecule of PGAL
three
how many PGAL molecules are needed to replace the RuBP used in the dark reactions and to make a glucose molecule
twelve
what uses the cilia to move
paramecium
an eyespot is used to sense light,and flagellum is used for movement in the
suglena
what has a nerve net instead of a true brain?
hydra
the first true brain, although primitive, is found in what?
planaria
a single segement of an earthworm's body is controlled by the
insect
impulses are taken directly to the neuron's cell body by the
dendrites
the space outside the polarized (resting) axon contains mostly
sodium ions
in repolarization which iond first ge pushed out of the axon , then pushed back in?
potassium ions
the inside of an axon always contains
large negative ions
the space between neurons is known as
synapse
a chemical sent by one neuron to start an impulse in another neuron is
neurotransmitter
which substance within an axon acts in a way that is analogous to the way enzymes act between neurons
potassium
the protective membranes around the brain and spinal cord are the
meninges
the part of the brain that automaticallyregulates breathing is the
medulla oblongata
the pons act as a bridge getween many grain regions, byt it most directly connects the two hemispheres of the
cerebellum
the brain region that coordinates movement that had onec been learned by now have become automatic, such as walking
cerebellum
hunger, thirst, and pituitary secretions are controlled by the
hypothalamus
what structure connects the two hemispheres of the cerebrum?
corpus callosum
which cerebral lobe controls logic, long term memory, and personality
frontal
interpretation of vision is accomplished by the verebral lobe known as
occipital
which cerebreal lobe inteprets sounds, smell, and taste:
temporal
what neuron in a reflex is located within the spinal chord????
association
the sense of smell is also known as
oflaction
the clear covering over the frontal surface of the eye is known as
cornea
the clear fluid that brings nutrients to the front of the eye
aqueous humor
the colored ring of muscle that controls the amount of light entering the eye is called
iris
most focusing of light, which turns the image upside-down, is accomplished by the
lens
changing focus as we switch from looking at objects close up to looking at objects far away is accomplished by the what?
ciliary muscle
the thick, jelly-like fluid that maintains the shape of the eyeball
vitreous humor
the tought white covering that surrounds and protects the eyeball
clera
the eye can see different colors due to prescence of
cones
black and white vision in low light, and motion detection at the periphery of the eye, are the main functions of the
rods
the place where the optic nerve connects to the retina
pinna
in order to prevent infection in the ear, the auditory canal secretes
wax
which middle ear bone is closest to the eardrum
hammer
the main function of the middle ear bones is to
amplify sounds
the main functions fo the Eustachian tubes is to
regulate air pressure in the middle ear
what has the most similar function tothe rods and cones fo the eye?
hair cells
the semicircular canals are most closely associated with
balance
the gland that secretes many hormones to control other glands
pituitary
horomone that causes bones to release calcium inot the blood
pth
inflammation in the body is controlled by this hormone
cortisone
the islets of Langerhans are located in the
pancreas
hormone that causes glucose to move from the blood into the body
insulin
term for sense of touch
tactile
the opening of the iris is known as the
pupil
taste buds on the very front of tip of the tongue can detect
sweetness
the smallest bone of the human body is the
stirrup
the main purpose of the chemical digestion is to
break apart large food molecules into small molecules that acan fit into our cells
which category of nutrients does glucose and starch belong
carbohydrates
the basic building block of proteins
amino acids
substance that breaks apart food molecules in chemical reactions
water
parto fo an amboea that chemically digests food particles
food vacuole
earthworm's digestive tract
mouth,pharnyx, esophagus, gizzard, crop, intestine, anus
moust of an earthworm
buccal cavity
where earthworm stores food
crop
part of earthworm that grinds food
gizzard
this structure is not found in worms or insects
salivary glands
an external mouth part of an insect
mandibles
chemical digestion in insects occurs here
stomach
water reabsorption in insects occurs here
rectum
the first source of quick energy in our bodies
glucose
the most efficent way to store energy in our body
fat
what is not a function of lipid in the body
dirgest proteins
vitamin that keeps blood vessels healthy and prevents scurvy
vitamin c
vitamin that cannot be stored in the body very long
vitamin B
vitamin involved in blood clotting
vitamin k
night blindness can be caused by the lack of what vitamin
vitamin A
inability to absorb calcium causes rickets in young children caused by a lack of
vitamin D
the hard and soft palletes help separate the mouth cavity from the
nasal cavity
the structure in humans that prevents food from entering the nasal cavity durin swallowing
the uvula
the taste buds at the very front tip of the tongue sense
sweetness
top of a tooth is covered with the hardest substance
enamel
a toot is permanently attached to the jawbone by a substance known as
cementum
blood vessels and nerves are found within a tooth's
neck
saliva contains an enzyme that speeds up the chemical digestion of
starch
salivary glands that are above the jaw, in front of the ears
parotid
salvary glands directly under the jaw
submandibles
during swallowing, the epiglottis prevents the passage of food into the
trachea
the muscle contractions that push food into the stomach
peristalis
the muscle that allows food to move from the esophogasus to the the stomach
cardiac sphincter
function of pepsin is to begin the digestion of
protein
pepsin only works
when th pH of the stomach is low
rennin
curdles milk
hormone that signals the release of all other stomach secretions
gastrin
enzyme secreted by the duodenum
lactase
pancreatic enzyme that causes the chemical digestion of fats
lipase
enzyme that is produced by both the salivary glands and the pancreas
amylase
an enzyme that is not involved in protein digestion
lactase
emulsification of large fat gobules into smaller fat gobules causes
bile
secretions of the liver and the pancreas are added to the intestine in the region known as the
duodenum
absorption of nutrients occurs more efficently due to the villi found
jejunum
a sphincter found between the ileum and ______
ilecolic valve
the main function of the large intestine
to reabsorb water
what is a natural product of the bacteria that live in the colon
vitamins
what component of feces is the most important reason to wash your hands after using the restroom?
bacteria
endoskeleton as a term
is the most inclusive wise
bone not a part of the axial skeleton
clavicale
ribs are held in place in the front of the chest by the
sternum
which vertebrae are found in the top region of the spinal column
cervical
bone holds the shoulder and arm directly on the axial
calvicle
uppermost arm bone
humerus
lower arm bone in direct line with the thumb
radius
long bones of the hands
metacarpals
the longest bone in the body
femur
bone fo the lower leg that forms the bottom of the knee joint
tifi
ankle bones
tarsals
medullary cavity contains
yellow marrow
the ends of long bones are made of
spongy bone
the thpe fo cell found within bone tissue
osteovyte
food and oxygen are transported to bone cells within compact bone by
haversian canals
tought outer covering that grows new compact bone
periosteum
marrow fo the spongy bone produces
red blood cells
chondrocytes produce a matrix that is missing calcium in tissue
cartilage
immovavle suture joints found between bones
cranium
gliding joints are found between the joints of
wrists
elbow, knee, fingers, and toes all have what kind of joints
hinge
one bone helps another by
ligaments
what contains many cells with many nuclei per cell?
skeletal muscle
a thin muscle protein that slides during the contraction
actin
a substance that is needed to make a muscle relax
ATP
smooth muscle is
involuntary
cardiac muscles have cells
that contain striations
th outermost surface fo the body is covered by layers of dead skin known as the
epidermis
funciton of adipose
fat storage
What is not living? Hair shaft of hair follicle?
hair shaft
sebaceous glands
secrete oil
blood cells are not usually found in
sweat
most poisonous nitrogen waste
ammonia
Since an amboea (99% water) lives in fresh water (100% water) it
the movement of the urea into the amboea
a contractile vacuole is found in
amboea
flame cells release ammonia through excretory pores in
planaria
nephridia are foundin each segement of the
earthworm
malpighian tubules are designed to excrete nitrogen waste known as
uric acid
in humans what is the sequence of organs in the urinary system
kidney, uter, urinary bladder, urethra
nephrons are found within the
kidney
the glomoerulus is a group fo capilliaries found in
bowman's capsule
sequence of regions of nephron
bowman's capsule, proximal tubule, loop of henle, distal tubule
the collecting duct is closest to
the distal tubule
what cannot go through the bowman's capsule filtration
blood cells
what process mainly occurs in th proximal tubules
reabsorption
the loop of Henle is mostly responsible for what process?
osmosis
secretion of excess urea and certain drugs occurs in the
distal tubule
the main effect of the hormone ADH is to
cause the kidney to reabsorb water back into the vlood
alchol and caffeine block ADH function so the body
dehydrates from the water loss
what is a product of all combustion reactions
carbon dioxide
typical combustion reactons cannot occur in the cells due to excessive release of
heat
the overall main cause of cellular respiration is the transfer
from glucose to ATP
in the first step of glycolysis glucose combines with
ATP
When glucose splits it most directly forms 2 molecules with
PGAL
the energy released from the splitting of glucose produces a net gain of
2 ATp
after glycolysis the most potential energy is still found in the
pyruvic acid
most of the process of respiration requiring oxygen occurs in the
mitochondrian
a waste product of the Krebs cycle
carbon dioxide
the main purpose of the krebs cycle is to transfer potential energy
from pyruvic acid to NADH
how many ATP molecules are produced by one NADH in electron transport?
3
each glucose produces about how many total ATP in the entire process of cell respiration?
36
the sequence of events in cell respiration
glycolsyis, krebs cycle, electron transport
the respiratory surface of an earthworm
skin
what is not needed by insects for external respiration
lungs
air is filterd, warmed, and moistened by the
nasal cavity
where vocal cords are contained
larnyx
the single long tube that take air from the voice box to the lungs
trachea
contains cartilage to keep them open all the time
bronchi
the actual repiratory surface in our body is found in the
alveoli
the large flat muscle that contracts to allow us to breathe
diaphragm
when volume of hte chest cavity increases,
pressure decreases
provides the force that pushes air out of our systems
air pressure
lowers pH of the blood to control our heart rate
carbon dioxide
part of brain that sense lower blood pH and speeds up the breathing rate
medulla
almost all oxygen is transported in our blood by the molecule known as
hemoglobin
describe the structure of a hemoglobin molecule
iron atoms at the center of the molecuel attaract oxygen with no chemical reaction
force needed to hold oxygen onto hemoglobin
pressure
carbon dioxide chemically combines with water to form
carbonic acid
ions absorged by red blood cells to help keep blood pH neutral
hydrogen
ions remain in the blood plasma to act as a buffer
biacarbonate
what percent of carbon dioxide is carried as bicargonate ions in the plasma
70%
where does carbohemoglobin release the substance that is carrying?
in the lungs
when carbohemoglobin is found in the blood, it is carrying
carbon dioxide
what percent of carbon dioxide can dissolve directly in hte blood plasma?
10%
circulatory system of earthworm
is closed, contains blood in capilliaries, contains aortic arches
hemoglobin would not be found in the blood of
insects
what structures keep blood flowing within insects
hearts
aristotle believed that blood was formed in the
liver
aristotle believed that blood would never be found in the
arteries
who first discoered blood inthe arteries
Galen
Harvey calulaed total blood volume by measuring heart volume
by heart rate
Harvey ogsereved valves in the veins always
point towards the heart
who first discovered capilliaries
Malphigini
which blood vessels carry blood away from the heart
areteries
muscle tissue is used help pump blood in the
arteries
with one exception, veins contain blood that is low in
oxygen
valves
prevent back flow of blood in veins
exchange of gases, nutrients, and wastes occurs between body cells
capillaries
blood is first carries form the body to the heart by a large blood vessel known as the
vena cava
the valve between the right atrium and the right ventricle
tricuspid
blood vessels that carry vlood from the lungs to the heart are
pumonary veins
blood in the pulmonary artery is
lower in oxygen
when the left ventricle contracts, which valve closes to prevent backflow into the left atrium?
bicuspid
when the left ventricle contracts, blood is allowed to move into the
aorta
durint he pahse of blood pressure known as systole
the ventricles contract
during the phase of blood pressure known as diastole
the semilunar valves close
in and EKG, the P wave
represent contraction of the atria
the QRS complex represents
contraction of the ventricles
the t wave
represents the resetting of the ventricles
circulatory region where vlood moves within the lungs
pulmonary
circulatory region where vlood moves within the liver i
hepatic portal
about what percent of blood plasma is water?
90%
what has no nucleus and contains large amounts of hemoglobin
erythocyte
the nonfunctional protein found on the surface of the RBC is known as
antigen
in the ABO blood group, if a person is Type A they have
B antibodies
if a person is type O they
have no antibodies
the universal recipient is
Type AB
a man with type AB and a woman with type O could not have a child with
type O
a man with type A (heterozygous) and a woman with type B (homozygous) could
have any blood type
an Rh negative woman
has the ability to produce antibodies
when injury occurs, what is the proper sequence?
prothrombin activator, prothrombin becomes throm bin, fibrinogen vecomes fibrin
what is need for the enzyme thrombin to activate
calcium and vitamin k
the disease that prevents normal blood clotting
hemophilia
type fo white blood cell that digests foreign organisms
phagocytes
white blood cell that "learns" to make antibodies to fight disease
t lymphocyte
mass production of antibodies
b lymphocytes
AIDS destructs
t lymphocytes