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42 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Health
-Relative equilibrium in which body systems are functioning adequately
Wellness
-State of good physical, mental, and emotional health
-proper diet and exercise habits
-physical health and emotional well being
Nutrition
-Impacts health and wellness greatly
-diet affects energy levels and overall health
Food Pyramid
-Shows what you should and should not eat
Fiber
-doesn't just keep you "regular"
-removes fats and cholestorol
-decreases risk of heart attacks, strokes, and anerisms.
Cholesterol
-not a fat - is and alcohol
-good and bad kinds
-can be used to create horemones and steroids
HDL
-High Density Lipoprotein
-small fatty globs
-not very bad
LDL
-Low Density Lipoprotein
-really bad
-"large hackin chunks of fatty goodness"
-can block veins & arteries
Aerobic Exercise
-forces lungs to circulate to your body, inproves efficiently
-strengthens lungs and heart
Anaerobic Exercise
-focuses on specific muscles to increase their size
- strength and endurance, doesn't get you in shape
-increases bone density
Homeostasis
relatively steady state maintained within our bodies despite the constantly occuring changes
Disease
-state of functional disquilibrium that may be resolved by recovery of death
Signs of Diseases
-Evidence of a disease observed in a physical exam
-Example: strep throat signs include white blisters, fever, ect.
Symptoms of Diseases
-Perception of a disease by a patient
-Example: strep throat symptoms include tired, chills, throat hurts, ect.
Etiology
-the cause of disease
-includes genetics, infections (virus/bacteria), and enviornmental exposure (skin cancer/genetic mutations).
Epidemiology
studies incidents distribution and contrion of diseases in a group
-looks at factors that influences disease (age, sex, occupation, geography)
Pathogenesis
-Source of an illness/disease and its development
-Example: food poisening.
Idiopathic
-The cause of a disease unknown
-Example: spinobifida - was a mystery until it was linked to a lack of folic acid in mother.
Hypertrophy
-Enlargement of an organ or body part
Atrophy
-A decrease in size of an organ or body part.
Diagnosis
-Determination of the nature of a disease
Prognosis
-Predicted course or outcome of a disease.
Acute
-Sudden onset and short term or duration
-Example: the flu
Chronic
-long lived or slow developming
-Example: mesothlelioma (sp?)
Defense mechanisms against pathogens
- what are the three levels of defense?
-1st line of defense: Physical and chemical barriers
-2nd line of defense:
Nonspecific (innate) defense mechanisms. Occur in response to any kind of challenge - do not target specific pathogens
-3rd line of defense:
Specific defense mechanisms-Immune responses. Cells, proteins and lymphatic system work together to detect and kill pathogens and abnormal body cells.
Physical/chemical barriers
-what do tears and saliva have to protect body?
-Intact skin is best barrier against entry in body
-Tears and saliva contain lysozyme - kills bacteria cell walls
-Mucus traps pathogens
-Vomiting, urination, and defecation get pathogenic microorganisms from body.
Phagocytosis
-Process where bacteria are 'eaten' by neutrophils and macrophages
Natural Killer cells
-cells that destroy tumor cells and host cells infected by viruses
Interferons
-Something that accects the virus' ability to produce a cell wall
Fever
-Increase in body temperature that gives the body an advantage over the virus/bacteria in body.
-increases metabolic rate of body cells -speeds up defense mechanisms and tissue repair
Inflammatory response

-What is the inflammatory response?
-What are the 4 outward signs of the inflammatory response?
-What is release from the cells that causes this response?
-What destroys microorganisms at the site of injury?
-when tissue infury triggers a response that prevents damage from spreading, disposes of debris and pathogens and helps tissue repair
-4 signs of inflammatory response: redness, warmth, swelling, and pain
-tissue damage causes release of histamine from cells. Histamine causes vasodilation and increases blood vessel permeability
-Phagocytes engulf and desroy microorganisms and debris at site of injury
Natural Killer Cells (NK)

-What kind of cells are NK cells?
-What do NK cells do?
-NK cells are Lymphocytes that recognize tumor cells or infected cells with viruses
-NK cells release chemicals that causes holes in the membrane of infected cell, so the cell dies
-NK cells secrete chemicals that enhance the inflammatory resoponse.
Complement system
-Group of 20 plasma proteins that assist with defencse mechanisms
- actions activated by complement proteins
-creates holes in bacterial cell walls
-binds to bacterial membranes and mark them for phagocytes
-stimulates release of histamine by mast cells
-attracts phagocytes to infection site (chemotaxis)
Immune Cells - B lymphocytes
B lyphocytes
-mature in bone barrow
-Responsible for anitbody-mediated (humoral) immunity
Immune Cells - T lymphocytes
T Lyphocytes
-mature in thymus gland but produced in bone marrow
-resonsible for cell mediated immunity
-Several types: helper,cytoxic, and suppressor
Antibody-mediated immunity
-Maturing B-cells develope surface receptors taht allow them to recognize specific antigens (Ag)
-Binding to specific Ag to surface receptor activates B cell, which divides rapidly to produce clone of identical cells
Many B cells become memory cells that can recognize same Ag at 2nd exposure
IdG - Antigen presenting Cells
IdG: most common antigen producing cells
T cells

-Different types (remember the bar scene)
-Have special surgace receptors that enable them to ID and bond to Ag fragments
-2 types:
CD4 = T Helper Cells
CD8 = T cytotoxic (surpressor cell)

Helper T cells stimulate other immune cells, including B cells (tattle tail)

Cytotoxic directly attack and destroy foreign cells by secreting proteing called perforin -makes holes in cell membrane. (Bouncer)

Suppressor T cells slow down immune responses after Af has been destroyed (manager at bar)
Primary v Secondary Response
Obviously, the secondary responce is much faster.
Immunization
Can be passive of active
-passive - involves getting anitbodies from another organism
-active- involves being exposed to Ag naturally or through vaccines
Vaccines in Development
-Meningitis
-Human Papilloma virus =genital warts
-Chlamydia
-AIDS
-Streptococcus group a = skin and throat infections
-Streptococcus group b = meningitis in newborns.
Transplant rejection
Transplants from another person can be rejected if donor tissue is not closely matched to recipient MHC proteins
-Immune system must be suppressed with drugs so Cytotoxic T cells don't attack transplant
-key to successful translant is to suppress immune system so that it won't attack transplant but will stll function to protect the body.