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63 Cards in this Set

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light microscopes
optical instrument with lenses that bend visible light to magnify images of specimens
organelles
formed bodies with specialized functions in cytosol of eukaryotic cell
electron microscope
microscope that focuses electron beam on specimen
scanning electron microscope
microscope that uses electron beam to scan surface of a specimen to study its topography
transmission electron microscope
microscope that aims the electron beam in very thin sections to study internal ultrastructure of cells
cell fractionation
process that takes cells apart in order to seperate the organelles from one another
ultracentrifuges
are able to seperate cell components by size and density
cytosol
semifluid substance where organelles can be found
prokaryotic cell
lacks membrane around the nucleus and lacks membrane-bounded organelles
nucleoid
dense region of DNA in a prokaryotic cell
eukaryotic cell
true nucleus with membrane bounded organelles and nuclear envelope
cytoplasm
region between nucleus and the plasma membrane
plasma membrane
selective barrier that allows passage of oxygen, nutrients, and wastes to service the cell
nucleus
contains most of the genes in the eukaryotic cell
nuclear lamina
netlike array of protein filaments that maintains the shape of the nucleus by mechanically supporting the nuclear envelope
chromosomes
structures that carry genetic information
chromatin
mixture of DNA and proteins
nucleolus
located in the non-dividing nucleus formed from proteins. it is an active in ribosome synthesis
ribosome
particles made of rRNA and protein that carry out protein synthesis
vesicles
sacs made of membranes
smooth ER
outside surface lacks ribosomes
rough ER
ribosomes stud the outer surface of the ribosomes
glycoproteins
proteins that have carbohydrates covalently bonded to them
transport vesicles
tiny membranous sac in cytoplasm carrying molecules produced by the cell
golgi apparatus
receives products of the endoplasmic reticulum and modifies them, stores them for sending to various destinations in the cell
phagocytosis
process by which cell engulfs particles
contractile vacuole
pumps excess water out of the cell and maintains the concentration of salt and other molecules
central vacuole
membranous sac in a mature plant that plays an important role in reproduction, growth, and development
tonoplast
membrane that encloses the central vacuole separating vacuolar contents and the cytosol
mitochondria
site for cellular respiration, ATP is extracted from sugars, fats, and other fuels
chloroplasts
site for photosynthesis in plants
peroxisome
oxidative organelles not part of endomembrane system that import proteins from the cytosol
cristae
infoldings of the membrane
mitochondrial matrix
second component of the mitochondrion that is enclosed by an inner membrane
thylakoids
interconnected sacs inside the chloroplast
granum
stacks of thylakoids
stroma
fluid outside the thylakoid containing chloroplast, DNA, enzymes, and ribosomes
cytoskeleton
network of fibers extending throughout the cytoplasm for mechanical and transport functions
motor proteins
interacts with cytoplasm to allow for cell motility
microtubules
thickest fibers of the cytoskeleton
microfilaments
thinnest fibers of the cytoskeleton
intermediate filaments
fibers whose diameter range between those of the microtubules and microfilaments of the cytoskeleton
centrosome
region near nucleus that organizes microtubules
centriole
nine sets of triplet microtubules arranged in a ring within animal cell
flagella
beats through specialized arrangement of microtubules that allow for cell motility
cilia
locomotor appendages that protrude from the cell
basal body
anchors microtubule assembly of cilia/flagellum
dynein
large contractile protein forming side arms of microtubule doublets in cilia and flagella
actin
globular protein making up microfilaments
myosin
type of protein filament that interacts with actin filaments to cause cell contraction
pseudopodia
cellular extensions that allow for amoeboid movement and feeding
cytoplasmic streaming
circular flow of cytoplasm within cells
cell wall
extracellular structure of plant cells that distinguish them from animal cells
primary cell wall
thin and flexible wall secreted by young plants
middle lamella
sticky layer of pectins
secondary cell wall
exists between the primary cell wall and the plasma membrane that deposits layers for cell protection and support
extracellular matrix
substance in which animal tissue cells are embedded consisting of proteins and polysaccharides
collagen
glycoprotein in extracellular matrix of animal cells that forms strong fibers
proteoglycans
glycoprotein in extracellular matrix of animal cells rich in carbohydrates
fibronectin
glycoprotein that helps cells attach to the extracellular matrix
integrins
receptor protein built into the plasma membrane interconnecting extracellular matrix and cytoskeleton
plasmodesmata
open channel in cell wall of plant where strands of cytosol connect from an adjacent cell
endomembrane system
system of membranes in a eukaryotic cell that are related either through direct contact or transfer of membranous vesicles