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78 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
polar molecule
opposite ends of the molecules have opposite charges
cohesion
binding together of like molecules by hydrogen bonds
adhesion
clinging of one molecule to another
surface tension
measure of how hard it is to stretch or break the surface of a liquid
kinetic energy
energy of motion
heat
total amount of kinetic energy due to molecular motion in a body of matter
temperature
measures intensity of heat due to the average kinetic energy of the molecule
calorie
amount of heat needed to raise 1g of water by 1degree celsius
kilocalorie
1000 calories is the amount of heat needed to raise 1kg of water by 1 degree celsius
joule
another energy unit 0.239 cal
specific heat
amount of heat that must be absorbed or lost to change the temperature of 1g of a substance by 1 degree celsius
heat of vaporization
quantity of heat a liquid must absorb for 1g to be converted from liquid to gas
evaporative cooling
molecules with high kinetic energy are most likely to leave as a gas
solution
homogeneous mixture of 2 or more substances
solvent
dissolving agent of a solution
solute
substance dissolved in a solution
aqueous solution
water is the solvent
hydration shell
sphere of water molecules that surround each dissolved ion
colloid
stable suspension of particles in a liquid
hydrophobic
substances that are nonpolar and nonionic that repel water
molecular mass
total mass of all the individual atoms in a molecule
mole
represents exact # of objects, 6.022 x 10^23
molarity
# of moles of a solute per L of solution
hydrogen ion
single proton with a charge of +1
hydroxide ion
water molecule with loss of a proton
acid
substance that increases hydrogen ion concentration
base
substance that reduces hydrogen ion concentration
pH
negative log of the hydrogen ion concentration
buffers
substances that minimize changes in the hydrogen ion concentration and hydroxide ion concentration in a solution
acid precipitation
caused by gaseous oxides in the environment reacting with water to form strong acids
organic chemistry
branch of chemistry that studies carbon containing compounds
hydrocarbons
organic compounds containing carbon and hydrogen
isomers
same molecular formula but different structure and therefore different properties
structural isomers
same molecular formula but different covalent arrangements of their atoms
geometric isomers
same covalent partnerships but different spatial arrangements
enantiomers
molecules that are mirror images of each other
functional groups
components of organic molecules involved in chemical reactions
ATP
adenosine triphosphate is an energy-transferring molecule
macromolecule
giant cellular molecule with a mass of 100,000 daltons
polymer
long molecule of similar building blocks linked by covalent bonds
monomer
building blocks of polymers
condensation reaction
reaction in which 2 molecules become covalently bonded to each other through loss of a water molecule
hydrolysis
reverse of condensation reaction, breaking bonds between monomers by adding water
carbohydrates
sugars and polymers of sugars
monosaccharides
simplest carbohydrate, serves as monomer for disaccharides and polysaccharides
disaccharide
2 monosaccharides joined in a glycosidic linkage
glycosidic linkage
covalent bond formed between 2 monosccharides by dehydration reaction
polysaccharide
macromolecule, polymer of over a thousand monosaccharides formed by dehydration reaction
starch
storage polysaccharide of plants
glycogen
polymer of glucose
cellulose
major component of plant cell walls
chitin
carbohydrate that arthropods use to build their exoskeletons
fat
constructed from 2 types of smaller molecules glycerol and fatty acid
fatty acid
long carbon skeleton 16-18 carbons long with carboxyl group 1 end
triacylglycerol
3 fatty acids linked to 1 glycerol molecule
saturated fatty accid
structure with no double bonds between carbons and as many hydrogen atoms as possible
unsaturated fatty acid
one or more double bonds between carbons formed by removal of H atoms from carbon skeleton
phospholipid
2 fatty acids attached to glycerol
cholesterol
steroid that serves as a precursor to other steroid synthesis
enzymes
protein that regulates metabolism
catalysts
chemical agents that speed up reactions without being consumed by them
polypeptides
polymers of amino acids
protein
consists of one or more polypeptides folded and coiled into specific combinations
amino acids
monomers of proteins that contain carboxyl and amino groups
peptide bond
covalent bond between 2 amino acid units by dehydration reaction
denaturation
process in which protein unravels and loses its native conformation becoming inactive
chaperonins
protein molecules assist in folding of other proteins
x-ray crystallography
important method to determine protein's 3D structure
gene
unit of inheritance consisting of DNA
nucleic acids
consists of many nucleotide monomers
polynucleotides
polymer consisting of many nucleotide monomers
nucleotides
basic structural unit for a nucleic acid. monomers of each polynucleotide
pyrimidine
6 membered ring of carbon and nitrogen
purine
large 6 membered ring fused to a 5 membered ring
ribose
sugar component of RNA
deoxyribose
pentose connected to nitrogenous base in nucleotides of DNA
double helix
formed by DNA molecules that contain 2 polynucleotides spiraling around an imaginary
antiparallel
2 sugar-phosphate backbones running in opposite directions of each other