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44 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Describe structural protiens.
-Maintain cell shape
-Internal/External support
-Specialized functions: protection, insulation, locomotion, defense
What does a cytoskeleton do?
Forms fibrous structure from protein subunits and provides structural organization and cell motility.
What are the fiborous protein structures that makes up the cytoplasm?
Microfilament, microtubule, and intermediate filaments
What does collagen form?
bones, ligaments, cartilage, tendons
What happens when a bone is fossilized?
proteins are replaced with minerals.
How do proteins provide movement?
muscle contractions relsult by sliding thin and thick protein filaments. The sliding action is powered by ATP.
What is cellular metabolism?
Chemical reactions that occur in the cell. They are catalyzed by enzymes.
What is the process of biological catalysts?
1. Each enzyme binds to specific subtrates.
2. Substrates are optimally aligned for the reaction to occur.
3. The enzyme releases the product and is ready for action again.
All enzymes are ________.
Proteins (only a few exceptions.)
How many enzymes does human cells have?
Do enzymes change in their reactions?
No, they remain unchanged.
What are some things that can affect how an enzyme works?
Temperature, pH, and salt concentration.
What does the active site of an enzyme bind?
A substrate.
Name some functions of enzymes.
-Digestion, synthesis, and energy conversion.
-Regulation of biochemical reactions
-Destroying invading organisms.
What are proteins the products of?
How many amino acids are there?
What does the structure of proteins depend on?
The sequence of amino acids.
What is mutation?
A change in the DNA sequence.
What are the function of red blood cells?
To carry oxygen to tissue and they contain hemoglobin.
What is oxygen carried by?
Proteins make up what percentage of dry weight in animals?
Who is Dr. James Herrick?
He discovered sickle cell anemia in 1910
Plasma is composed of what?
16%-63% composed mainly of water and plasma proteins
What are formed elements composed of?
37%-54% composed mainly of red blood cells, platelets, and white blood cells.
Amino acids are the subunits or monomers of a:
A spider web is an example of a protein involved in:
The primary function of hemoglobin in the human body is to transport:
In hemoglobin, what is the metal ion that interacts with a hydrogen atom in order to accomplish the function of transporting oxygen?
What is anemia?
An insufficient number of red blood cells.
Are covalent bonds stronger or weaker than noncovalent bonds?
Amino acids link together to form:
polypeptide chains
What is the binding site on an enzyme for a specific substrate called?
active site
What do tendons and ligaments gain strength from?
collagen fibers
What does the formation of a peptide bond between two amino acids during protein synthesis occur by?
a condensation reaction
What's the difference between hemoglobin S found in individuals with sickle cell anemia and normal hemoglobin A?
-The amino acid sequences differ by one amino acid
-they have a different charge
-when there are deoxygenated HbS forms a fibrous precipitate while HbA remains soluable.
What is an enzyme that digests proteins called?
The three-dimensional structure of a polypeptide chain that gives a protein its function is determined by the:
amino acid sequence
What is an enzyme?
A protein that serves as a biological catalyst, changing the rate of a chemical reaction without itself being changed into a different molecule in the process.
What are seven functions of protein?
What is blood composed of?
About 55 percent of the blood is composed of plasma. The rest of the blood is made of three major types of cells: red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets.
What causes Malaria?
it is an infectious disease caused by a parasite that is transmitted by the bite of infected mosquitoes.
What can trigger sickle cell attacks?
The lowering of oxygen tension, either in the externam environment of in the local tissue environment, as a result of inadequate oxygenation of the blood.
What causes sickle cell anemia?
A structural change in the hemoglobin proteins, triggered by a reduction in oxygen tension.
What is the name of the protein that transports iron?