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29 Cards in this Set

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What is biological extinction?
The disapearance of a species, eliminating that sequence of DNA
How many major episodes of mass extinction have occured?
5
What was the most drastic extinction?
The end of the Permian period 248 million years ago.
What is the bottleneck effect?
-inbreeding due to population reduction
-reduce genetic variation
-lack adaptability
-threaten the survival of the species
What happens if a species lacks genetic variation?
susceptible to disease outbreak or environmental change.
What are 5 types of mutation?
missense, nonsense, frameshift, deletion, and insertion.
What is an example of missense?
THQ ONE BIG FLY HAD ONE RED EYE
What is an example of nonsense?
THE ONE BIG
What is an example of framshift?
THE ONE QBI GFL YHA DON ERE DEY
What is an example of deletion?
THE ONE BIG HAD ONE RED EYE
What is an example of insertion?
THE ONE BIG WET FLY HAD ONE RED EYE
What are somatic mutations?
Mutations that are not transmitted to future generations.
What is a germline mutation?
Mutations that are passed from generation to generation
Spontaneous mutations:
arise randomly in nature.
Induced mutations:
arise as a result of the influence of any artificial factor.
What is the p53 protein?
It moniters the repair of damaged DNA. If damage is too severe, it promotes programmed cell death or apoptosis.
What is neutral mutation? What are examples?
It has no apparent advantages or disadvantages. Earlobe, widow's peak...
What is harmful mutation? What are examples?
it is detrimental or even lethal to the individual. Hemophelia.
What is beneficial mutation? What is an example?
it provides survival/reproductive advantages to the individual. One allele for Sickle Cell anemia.
Asexual reproduction is moer cost effective in regards to:
offspring number and energy utilization.
Less than __ of all species reproduce asexually.
1%
What is the basic principle of sexual reproduction?
individual variations within the species for maximum adaptability.
What is bilogical extinction?
the disappearance of a species and elimination of that sequence of DNA.
In order for a mutation to be passed on to the next generation it must be a:
germline mutation
What are gametes?
sex cells
Most mutations are either ____ or ____.
neutral or detrimental
What is the disadvantage or sexual reproduction?
It increases the amount of DNA and requires two organisms in order to reproduce.
What is the advantage of sexual reproduction?
It's the most efficient way for increasing genetic diversity.
In the most dramatic of the mass extinctions, ___% of all marine animals became extinct due to ________ shifting.
95, Pangea