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41 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
why is carbon so important?
has 4 electrons, enabling it from many bonds and shapes
chains, branches, rings
organic vs. inorganic
organic: carbon skeleton and contain hydrogen atoms
inorganic: CO2 and all atoms w/o carbon like water
what do functional groups do for molecules?
allow organic molecules to be more likely to participate in chemical rxns because groups are less stable than carbon based ones
what is modular approach?
building polymers by using small organic molecules like sugar as subunits to make longer molecules
monomers vs. polymers
mono: one subunit
poly: long chains of monomers
monomers + monomers --> poly
dehydration synthesis
poly --> mono + mono
hydrolysis
3 elements found in carbs
carbon, hydrogen, oxygen
2 subtypes of carbs.
monosaccharides: energy source
disaccharides: transport energy
polysaccharides: energy storage
simple vs. complex
simple: mono and di (sugar)
complex: poly (starches)
examples of monosaccharides
fructose and ribose (RNA)
examples of disaccharides
sucrose and lactose
examples of polysaccharides
starches, glycogen, cellulose
are carbs polor or nonpolor?
hydrophobic or hydrophillic?
polor and hydrophillic
diabetes mellitus
cant control glucose levels
common elements of lipids.
phospholipids
carbon, hydrogen, oxygen
phospho: nitroten and phosphorus too
are lipids polor/nonpolar?
hydrophobic/hydrophillic
nonpolor, hydrophillic
oils, fats, waxes
unsaturated, saturated, trans fats
C,H,O
long term energy storage, water proofing, structures
phospholipids
C,H,O,P,N
hydrophilic head w/ hydrophobic tails
make up plasma membrane
steriods
four rings of carbon fused together w/ various function groups
base for making hormose/part of cell membrane
saturated fat vs. unsaturated
sat: saturated w/ H molecules, solid
unsat: double bonds of carbon, not so many H's, liqued
trans fat
oil --> solid
breaking bonds and adding H
calorie count of fat to carb
fat: 9.3 cals/gram
carb: 4.2 cals/gram
common elements of proteins
C,H,O,N
what are the subunits of proteins?
amino acids
functions of proteins
making enzymes
structure (hair/nails)
energy (albumin)
transporters (hemoglobin)
antibodies
hormones
poisens
4 structural levels of proteins
1st: sequence of amino acids
2nd: polypeptide chains/helix/sheet
tertiary: 3 dimensional, determine final config, sometimes disulfide bridges
4th: polypeptides link together, hold heme, can bind to oxygen
final shape of protein
determines its function
common elements of proteins
C,H,O,N
what are the subunits of proteins?
amino acids
functions of proteins
making enzymes
structure (hair/nails)
energy (albumin)
transporters (hemoglobin)
antibodies
hormones
poisens
2 structural levels of proteins
1st: sequence of amino acids
2nd: polypeptide chains/helix/sheet
tertiary: 3 dimensional, determine final config, sometimes disulfide bridges
4th: polypeptides link together, hold heme, can bind to oxygen
final shape of protein
determines its function
common elements of nucleic acids?
C,H,O,N,P
what are the subunits of nucleic acids?
nucleotides - ribose or deoxyribose
3 part structure of nucleotides
five carbon sugar, ribose or deoxyribose, phosphate group, nitrogen containing base
function of deoxyribose acid
spell out genetic info needed to construct proteins of each organism
function of ribosnucleic acid
carry DNA's genetic code into cells cytoplasm and direct synthesis of proteins
function of ATP
carry energy stroed in bonds between phosphate groups from place to place in cell, then release it to drive reactions elsewhere
coenzymes
nucleotide + vitamin
assist enzymes in promoting and guiding reactions
how is ATP diff from DNA or RNA?
ATP contains additional phosphate groups