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33 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
cell cycle
the sequence of events that takes place between two successive mitotic divisions
eukaryote
An organism that has a nuclear membrane surrounding the genetic material and has other membrane bound organelles in the cytoplasm
prokaryote
an organism without a nucleus
molecule
a structure composed of 2 or more atoms held together by chemical bonds
interphase
the period of time in the cell cycle between mitotic divisions
cytoskeleton
a system of protein microfilaments and microtubules that allows a cell to have a characteristic shape.
organelle
a cytoplasmic structure that has a specialized function.
endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
A system of cytoplasmic membranes arranged into sheets and channels that functions in synthesizing and transporting gene products.
mitosis
form of cell division that produces two cells, each of which has the same complement of chromosomes as the parent cell
lysosomes
membrane-enclosed organelles that contain digestive enzymes.
mitochondria
membrane-bound organelles present in the cytoplam of all eukaryotic cells that are the sites of energy production within cells.
nucleus
the membrane-bounded organelle in eukaryotic cells that contains the chromosomes.
cytokinesis
the process of cytoplasmic division that accompanies cell division
nucleolus
a nuclear region that functions in the synthesis of ribosomes
acrocentric chromosome
a chromosome whose centromere is placed closer to one end than the other.
chromatin
the component material of chromosomes. Visable as clumps of threads in nuclei under a microscope.
prophase
a stage in mitosis during which the chromosomes become visable and split longitudinally except at the centromere
sex chromosome
in humans, the X and Y chromosomes that are involved in sex determination
chromosomes
the threadlike structures in the nucleus that carry genetic information
gene
the fundamental unit of heredity
autosomes
chromosomes other than the sex chromosomes
homologues
members of a chromosomal pair
chromatid
one of the strands of a duplicated chromosome, joined by a single centromere to its sister chromatid
submetacentric chromosome
a chromosome whose centromere is placed closer to one end than the other
diploid
the condition in which each chromosome is represented twice as a member of a homologous pair.
haploid
the condition in which each chromosome is represented once in an unpaired condition
zygote
the diploid cell resulting from the union of a make haploid gamete and a female haploid gemete.
sister chromatids
2 chromatids joined by a common centromere. Each chromatid carries identical genetic information
centromere
a region of a chromosome to which fibers attach during cell division. The location of a centromere gives a chromosome its characteristic shape.
metacentric chromosome
a chromosome that has a centrally placed centromere
metaphase
a stage in mitosis during which the chromosomes move and become arranged near the middle of the cell
metaphase
a stage in mitosis during which the chromosomes move and become arranged near the middle of the cell
telophase
the last stage in mitosis during which the division of the cytoplasm occurs, the chromosomes of the daughter dells disperse, and the nucleus re-forms