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35 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Aerobic respiration
nutrients are catabolized to Co2 & H2O. Includes a series of redox rcns. Gluose-oxdzed, oxygen-reduced
Free energy in respiration
Any free energy released is coupled to ATP synthesis
3 types pf rcns in respiration
dehydrogenation, decarboxylation, preparation rcns.
in which 2 hydrogen atoms are removed from substrate & transferred to NAD+ or FAD.
Part of a caraboxyl group is removed from the substrate as a molecule of CO2.
Preparation rcns
molecules undergo changes so they can undergo further decarboxylations or dehydrogentations
Glycolysis (overview)
doesn't require oxygen. Consists of 6 carbons and is converted into 2 molecules of pyruvate.Take place in cytosol.
net yield: 2 ATP and 2 NADH.
1st phase of glycolysis
"Investment of ATP".
(1)In 2 phosphorylation rcns a phosphate group is transferred from ATP to the sugar.
(2)This breaks down into 2 molecules of G3P.
2nd phase of glycolysis
Each G3P is converted to pyruvate.
(1) Each G3P is oxidized by the removal of 2 electrons.
(2)These electrons combine with NAD+ to make 2 NADH molecules.
(3) some ATP forms
Substrate-level phosphorylation
Phosphate group is transferred to ADP from phosphorylated intermediate.
Glycolysis gains and losses
-2 ATP invested, 4 produced, net gain: 2
-2 NAD+ molecules invested, 2 NADH molecules produced
-4 ATPS produced in substrate-level phosphorylation.
-2 pyruvates produced.
Pyruvate is converted to acetyl CoA
Pyruvate undergoes oxidative decarboxylation.
(1) a carboxyl group is removed as CO2, which diffuses out of the cell.
(2) Then it is oxidized. NAD+ accepts the electrons.
(3) this attatches with an acetyl group and coenzyme A to becomes acetyl Coenzyme A.
Citric acid cycle
Matrix of mitochondria.
(1) acetyl CoA combines with oxaloacetate to form citrate.
(2) Citrate loses 2 carboxyl groups as CO2
(3) oxoacelate is regenerated
for every acetyl group that enters citric cycle...
- 3 molecules of NADH
- 1 FADH2
- 1 ATP
- 2 CO2
to metabolize one glucose
the citric cycle must turn twice
Electron transport chain
Electrons are passed from one acceptor molecule in redox rcns. Exergonic.
Oxidative phosphorylation
ATP is synthesized using the energy released from oxidation-reduction reactions in an ETC.
Substrate-level phosphorylation
ATP is synthesized using the energy released during an enzyme-catalyzed in which a substrate is converted to a product.
Electron carriers
each exists in an oxidized form or a reduced form. Each e- loses some energy going along the chain.
Cytochromes in ETC
iron-containing proteins that transfer e-.
O2 in ETC
all e- are donated to oxygen and unite with protons to make water.
deprivation of O2
No more ATPs can be produced. ATP in glycolysis isn't enough to sustain life.
Binds to the iron in that last cytochrome, making it unable to transport e- to O2.
Some of the energy produced transporting e- in ETC is used to move protons across a membrane.
ATP synthase
A protein that uses the protons energy to make ATP, when they pass thru this ptotein. Exergonic b/c entropy of system increases.
1 FADH2= 2
NADH shuttles
these shuttles transfer the e- of NADH to the ETC.
Net ATP via substrate-level phosphorylation
Net ATP via oxidative phosphorylation from NADH during glycolysis
4 or 6
Net ATP via oxidative phosphorylation during pyruvate->coA
Net ATP via oxidative phosphorylation of NADH during the citric acid cycle.
Net ATP via oxidative phosphprylation of FADH2 during the citric acid cycle
Total ATP via oxidative phosphorylation
32 or 34
Certain bacteria use this anaerobic pathway which doesn't involve the ETC. Only 2 ATP is formed for every glucose. The pathways whi pyruvate is converted to ethyl alcohol or lactic acid.
Glycolysis in aneatobic conditions
NADH is converted back to NAD and recyled again.