Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

19 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Calvin Cycle
Co2 enters, sugar leaves, ATP is spent and NADPH is consumed
glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate
three carbon sugar produced by 3 turns of calvin which fix three molecules of Co2.
Phase 1 of Calvin Cycle
Carbon fixation- each co2 is attached to a 5 carbon sugar (RuBP). makes a 6 carbon intermediate that splits to from 2 molecules of 3 phosphoglycerate
RuBP carboxylase, enzyme that catalyzes first step by adding Co2 to RuBP. most abundant protein on earth.
Phase 2 of Calvin Cycle
Reduction- each molecules of 3 phosphoglycerate receives another phosphate from ATP making 1,3-biphosphoglycerate. A pair of electrons from NADPH reduces this to G3P(the sugar made in glycolysis when glucose is split)
3 molecules of CO2
6 molecules G3P. 1 molecule is used by a plant cell, but the other 5 must be recycled to regenerate 3 more molecules of RuBP.
Phase 3 of Calvin Cycle
Regeneration of Co2 Acceptor (RuBP). Carbon skeletons of G3P are rearranged into 3 RuBP, using three more molecules ATP. From here, the cycle continues.
one G3P molecule
calvin cycle consumes 9 ATP and 6 NADPH.
C3 Plants
plants whose first step is catalyzed by rubisco and produce 3 phosphoglycerate.
(rice, wheat, soybeans)
consumes oxygen, releases CO2, generates no ATP, decreases photosynthetic output. occurs on hot dry days when stomata close and the o2 concentration in the leaf exceeds that of Co2. wastes CO2.
C4 Plants
prefaces the calvin cycle with reaction that incorporate co2 into 4 carbon compounds, the end product of which supplies Co2 for the calvin cycle.
(corn). leaves have bundle sheath cells and mesophyll cells. Co2 is first incorporated into organic intermediates before calvin.
bundle-sheath cells
tightly packed sheaths around the veins of the leaf.
mesophyll cells
between the bundle sheath and the leaf surface- more loosely arranged.
PEP carboxylase
adds Co2 to phosphophoenolpyruvate (PEP) making 4 carbon oxaloacetate. has a higher affinity for CO2 than does rubisco and thus can fix Co2 when stomata are partially closed.
crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM)
co2 entering open stomata during the night is converted into organic acids which release co2 for the calvin cycle during the day when stomata are closed.
CAM Plants
mesophyll cells store organic acids in their vacuoles until morning. Co2 is first incorporated into organic intermediates before calvin.
where are they now: sugar
supplies entire plant with chemical energy and carbon skeletons to synthesize all the major organic molecules of cells.
where are they now: organic material
50% consumed by respiration. stock pile extras by making starch and stores other throughout plant.
makes up cell walls, most abundant organic material on earth