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57 Cards in this Set

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what are autotrophs?
-organisms that make their own food
What are heterotrophs?
organisms that obtain energy from the food they consume
What is ATP?
-consists of a nitrogen-containing compound called adenine, a 5 carbon sugar called ribose and three phosphate groups
What is the role of ATP in cellular activities?
-active transport
-movement within the cell
What is ADP?
has 2 phophate groups
How are ATP and glucose similar? How are they different?
-glucose holds 90% more energy
-ATP & Glucose both store energy
Van Helmont's Experiment was?
-found mass of a pot of dry soil & small seedling
-after 5 years the seedling was a small tree
- the mass of the soil was almost unchanged
-most of the mass of the plant gained had come from water
priestley's experiment?
-took a candle, placed a glass jar over it, & watched as the falme died out
-then placed mint under jar & allowed a few days to pass & the candle could be relighted and remained lit for a while
-oxygen needed
Jan Ingenhousz?
experiments performed by all of them and other s reveal that in the presence of light, plants transform carbon dioxide and water into carbs and release oxygen
equation of photosynthesis:
6CO2 + 6HO2 >light> C6H12O6 + 6O2
pigments?
plants gather the sun's energy with light-absorbing molecules
chlorophyll?
plants principal pigment
why are plants green?
chlorophyll does not absorb light well in the green region of the spectrum
where does photosynthesis take place?
chloroplasts
thylakoid?
-saclike photosynthetic membrane
-contain clusters of chlorophyll and other pigments and protein known as photosystems that are able to capture the energy of sunlight
where do the light dependent reactions take place?
thylakoid
where does the calvin cycle take place?
stroma
What is NADP+?
-accepts and holds 2 high-energy electrons along with a hydrogen ion
-this converts the NADP+ into NADPH
-this is one of the ways that energy can be trapped in a chemical form
light dependent reactions:
-produce oxygen gas and convert ADP and NADP+ into energy carriers ATP and NADPH
ATP synthase?
allows H+ ions to pass through the protein
calvin cycle?
-plants use the eneergy that ATP and NADPH contain to build high-energy for more than a few minutes
-uses ATP and NADPH from the light-dependent reactions to produce high-energy sugars
-uses 6 carbon dioxide molecules to produce a single 6 carbon sugar
What are the factors affecting photosynthesis?
-water: raw material of photosynthesis and a shortage can slow or even stop it
-temp.
-light
calorie and "C"?
-amount of energy needed to raise the temp. of 1 gram of water 1 celcius degree
-"C": a kilocalorie or 1000 calories
glycolysis?
-releases a small amount of energy
cellular respiration?
-glycolysis, kreb cycle & electron transport chain make up this process
-process that releases energy by breaking down food molecules in the presence of oxygen
-euqations: 6O2 + C6H12O6 >>> 6CO2 + 6H2O + energy
glycolysis?
-process in which one molecule of glucose is broken in half, producing 2 molecules of pyruvic acid, a 3-carbon sugar compound
-net gain of 2 ATP molecule
-happens in the cytoplasm
NAD+?
-accepts a pair of high-energy electrons
-helps to pass energy from glucose to other pathways in the cell
NADH?
-holds the electron until they can be tranferred to other molecules
fermentation?
releases energy from food molecules in the absence of oxygen
alcoholic fermentation?
-produces carbon dioxide & alocohol
lactic acid fermentation?
-produced in ur muscles during rapid exercise when the body cannot supply enough oxygen to the tissues
Kred Cycle?
-pyruvic acid is broken down into carbon dioxide in a series of energy-extracting reactions
-happens in mitochondrion
electron transport?
-uses high-energy electrons from the kreb cycle to convert ADP into ATP
what are the similarities and differences between photosynthesis and cellular respiration?
photosynthesis: -deposits energy
-removes carbon dioxide
cellular respiration:-withdraws energy
-puts carbon dioxide back

their equations are reversed
what problem does cell growth cause for cells?
-movement in and out of the cell
-protein or nutrtients into the cell
-waste out of the cell
what increases more rapidly, the volume or surface area?
volume
cell division?
-process by which a cell divides into 2 daughter cells
-before cell division, the cell replicates its DNA
What are the main events of the cell cycle?
-G1 phase- cell growth
-S phase- DNA replication
-G2 phase- preparation for mitosis
-M phase- cell division
chromatids?
when they become visible at the beginning of cell division , each chromosome consists of 2 identical "sister chromatids"
centromeres?
-chromatids are attached here
- usually located at the middle
how many chromosomes do people have?
46
interpahse?
once cell division after another separated by an in-between period of growth
cell cycle?
-cell grows
-prepares for division
-and divideds forming 2 daughter cells
this process will then start over again
What are the 4 phases of mitosis?
1.prophase: chromatin condenses into chromosomes, centrioles seperate, spindle begins to form & nuclear membrane breaks down
2.metaphase: chromosomes line up at center of the cell, each is connected to a spindle fiber at its centrmere
3.anaphase: sister chromatids separate into individual chromosomes & are moved apart
4.telophase: chromosomes gather at opposite ends of the cell and lose their distinct shapes, 2 new nuclear membranes form
cytokinesis?
division of the cytoplasm itself and usually occurs the same time as telophase
what is a defect gene?
P 53
How is the cell cycle regulated?
-internal regulators- ex:cyclins
-external regulators-stimulate growth. when cells come in contact with eachother they stop growing
cyclins?
regulate the timing of the cell cycle in eukaryotic cells
how are cancer cells different from other cells?
do not respond to signals that regulate the growth of most cells. as a result they form masses of cells called tumors that can damage the surrounding tissues
what role does oxygen play in the electron transport chain?
oxygen accepts the low energy electrons that form H2O
fermentation & Kreb Cycle?
fermentation:lack of oxygen
Kreb cycle: has oxygen
what is not a stage of cellular respiration?
fermentation
what are the reactants in the equation for cellular respiration?
oxygen and glucose
what does the conversion of pryuvic acid into lactic acid require?
NADH
during one turn what does the kreb cycle produce?
electron carriers
what passes high energy electrons into the electron transport chain?
NADH and FADH2
lipids and proteins?
lipids: beta oxidation
proteins:deamination