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31 Cards in this Set

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Genetics
Study of gene function from the molecules of DNA to the gene pool of a population
Cnetral Dogma Of MOL BIO (infromatino Flow)
DNA>>RNA>>PROTEIN
Genes
Functional units of DNA Genetic analysis requires an observable trait that can be monitered
Allele
different but related forms of the same gene
Genotype
the set of genes an organism inhetits
Phenotype
Characteristics of an organism. Can change in their live due to environmental interactions
Wild type WT
Genotypic or phenotypic characteristics of NATURAL populations or STANDARD lab strains
NOT Wild Type
Variant / Mutant
Mutation
the basis of variation, material for evolution
developmental noise
random molecular events in a cells developing organism cause phenotype variations
Geno-pheno TYPE
genotype determines phenotype however expression of the information in influenced by the evniorment, developmental noise, and other
genetic Dissection
Identify a process to study - Isolate mutants that interfere with the process - IDENTFY (CLONE) the WT gene - determine the function of gene products
centromere
structure that attached to spindal fibers during MIT and MEI
Telomere
chromosome ends
Chromatin
DNA and associates necleosomes(histones)
Euchromatin
Active DNA (lightly packed, Active transcription)
Heterochromatin
inactive DNA (Tightly packaged)
Chromosome structure
Human Cell>>6 lillion bp
FIRST LEVEL OF PACKAGEING
necleosomes - histones DNA wraps around twice for each one
SECOND LEVEL OF PACKAGING
soleniod - coil of necleosomes stabalized by histone H1
Super Coil
Held together by a protein scaffold
DNA Packaging
DNA > necleosomes > Soleniod > Scaffold > Supercoil
Gregor Mendel
quantitative ans systematic study of inheritance
Dominant
the phenotype expressed when the in the F1 progeny when 2 different pure breeding line are crossed
Recessive
the phenotype coved up by the presence of the dominant phenotype
HOMOzygous
both alleles of a gene pairs are the same
HETEROzygous
differnt alleles of the same gene pair
Alleles
different forms of the same gene
Autosomes
all chromosome other than sex chromosomes
Mendel's First Law (Law of Equal Segregation)
2 members of gene pair segregate equally, each gamete carries one allele of the gene pair
Dihybrid Cross- P true breeding >> F1 hetrozygous
9:3:3:1 Phenotype of F2 Progeny