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38 Cards in this Set

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Whisk ferns
Horse tails
In plant evolution...
Seeds(stronger multicellular)replace spores(unicellular)by main modes of dispersial
Seed has 3 parts
embryo, Endosperm(starch), and seed coat
Seed plants
evolution of pollen, vehicle that transports sperm without water
Phylum Coniferophyta
Pine tree gymnosperm (naked seed no ovary surrounding seeds). Insect/Wind pollenated, sperm nuclei(no flaggellum) land and spits out two sperm nuclei.
pollen grains
The structures that contain the male gametophyte of seed plants.
Naked seed no ovary surrounding seeds
>Coniferophyta(largest group of gymnosperm):
>Cycadophyta:Florida coontie
(Zamia pulima), Sago palm
(Gingko biloba)
>Gnetophyta: Ephedra
Ovary surrounding seeds
All seed plants are heterosporous
the devolpment of seed is assicated with megasporangum
Ovule to seed
The ovule is the structure found in seed plants that devolps into a seed after fertilization.
The transfer of pollen to the part of a seed plant containing the ovules, a process that is a prerequisite for fertilization.
Layer of sporophyte tissue that contributes to the structure of an ovule of a seed plant. Devolps into the seed coat after fertilazation
From Ovule to Seed
1.Megasporangium surround by prtective layer called integument, with inner megaspore(n). 2. After Pollen grain(n) is discharged they bind becoming embryo (2n)
In pine cones sections are called...
scale (leaves) sporophyll
are plants that have “naked” seeds that are not enclosed in ovaries. Their seeds are exposed on modified leaves that usually form cones (strobili)
seeds are enclosed in fruits, which are mature ovaries.
Long pine needles
reduce water loss, are well adapted to dry conditions
Male and female gametophyte in pine trees
Male gametophyte = pollen grain,
Female gametophyte = consit of multicellar nutritive tissue and an archengunium that devolps with an ovuale
In pine trees...
it may take a year or so after pollenation for fertilaztion to take place. The life cycle can take up to three years
Phylum Cycadophyta "cycads"
The cycads have 100 species goes bac to dinosaurs. Flagelleted sperm, (Zamia Pumila, 'Florida Coontie') is gymnosperm(naked seed) Also Sago Palm ( has large cone and palmlike leaves)
Phylum Ginkgophyta
(Ginkgo biloba)- for memory lives for hundereds of years, flesh seed contains butyric acid , oxiginates the brain for memory
Phylum Gnetophyta
Ephedra - used for weight loss
*Welwitshia miracilis - largest leaves in the world huge tap root lives thousands of years, Gnetum - tree or vine
Flower and Fruit
The anthor produce microspores---> Produce pollen---> the male gametophyte
The sticky part of a flower′s carpel, which traps pollen grains.
Pollen Tube
leads down the the embryo sac which contains eight haploid nuclei in 7 cells
The pollen–producing reproductive organ of a flower, consisting of an anther and filament.
Two Classes of Flowering Plants
Monocots x 3 ( Corn, Grass)Parellel veins, roots fibrous no main root,

Dicots x 5 (Beans) netlike veins, taproot usually present
a seed leaf is were food is stored
Ovulate cone or Pistillate cone
Contains megaspore (female gametophye) eggs(n), is composed of scales sometimes called sporophyll(produce spores), seeds were between the scales.
Pollen Cone or Staminate cone
Contains microsporangium (male gametophyte)pollen grains
Pinus Pollen
pollen grain of pinetree(pinus) these grains have bladders or wings which help them 'fly' on air currents and also have pollen tube. Phylum Coniferophyta
gymnosperm naked seeds
Phloem and Xylem
Phloem conduct food or sugar up.
Xylem conduct water and minerals down
Phylum Anthophyta
All angiosperms, 2 classes moncot and dicot
Carpel/Pistill(Female) 3 parts
1. Stigma(ticky part of a flower′s carpel)
2. Style(leads to the ovary at the base of the carpel, which contains one or more ovules)
3. Ovary (the portion of a carpel in which the egg–containing ovules develop)
Stamen (male) 2 parts
1. Anther (produce microspore, pollen)
2. Filament ( The stalk of a stamen)
After reaching the ovary, the pollen tube penetrates through the micropyle
double fertilization
A mechanism of fertilization in angiosperms, in which two sperm cells unite with two cells in the embryo sac to form the zygote and endosperm.