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121 Cards in this Set

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What are the two principle modes of animal reproduction?
Asexual

Sexual
This mode of reproduction is the creation of new individuals whose genes all come from one parent without the fussion of egg and sperm. In most cases this type of reproduction relies entirely on MITOTIC cell division.
Asexual Reproduction
this mode of reproduction is the creation of offspring by the fusion of haploid gametes to form a zygote.
Sexual Reproduction.
a fertilized egg is also know as___1. Is this haploid or diploid?2
1.Zygote
2.Diploid
haploid ____s fuse together to from a zygote?
gametes
The female gamete is also know as the ___. It is an unfertilized egg.
ovum
The male gamete is known as the ___. It is genereally a small motile cell.
spermatozoon.
List one advantage of Sexual Reproduction.
Suggested Answers:
Increase genetic variablility by generating unique combonations of genes.
Many invertebrates can reproduce asexually by ____. The separation of a parent into two or more indivividuals of appraximately equal size.
fission
___ invovles new individuals splitting off existing ones.
budding
T/F some invertebrates reproduce asexually by releasing specialized cells that can grow into new individuals?An example of the ______s of sponges
T, gemmules
The breaking of the body into several pieces, some or all of which develop into complete adults is a mode of asexual reproduction known as____.
Fragmentation
Fragmentation must be accompanied by _______ -> the regrowth of lost body parts.
regeneration
the process in which the egg develops without being fertilized is ____
parthenogenesis.
Male honeybees/drones are produced _____. While female queen b's are produced from _____ _____.(because they are better that the guys :-).
parthenogenectically
fertilized eggs
A complex form of parthenogenesis that involves the douling of chromosomes after meiosis creates diploid ______. Popular in fish and amphibians.
zygotes.
T/F the whiptail lizard has only females in its species?
T the whiptail lizard again reproduces parthenogetiocally ...each female takes turns imitating the male in sexual stimulation...however they can reproduce on their own.
Some animals have trouble finding mates and use ______, in which each individual has both male and female reproductive sytems.
hermaphroditism.
In this reproductive pattern and individual reverses its sex during its lifetime. This is known as ?
sequential hermaphrodidtism
define protogynous?
Female first.
define protandrous
male first.
What is one example of a protogynous species?
Caribbean bluehead.
Fertilization is the union of what?
sperm and egg.
explain external fertilization
eggs are shed by the female and fertilized by the male in the environment.
explain internal fertilization
sperm are deposited in or near the female reproductive tract.
Internal fertilization requires cooperative behavior . What does external fertilization require as far as the environment goes?
moist because and egg must develop without desiccation or heat stress.
____ are chemical signals released by one organism that influence the behavior of other individuals of the same species.
Phermones.
Species with_____fertilization usually produce fewer zygotes but provide more parental protection than species iwth ____fertilization
internal
external
In animals that develop entirely within the female uterus the embryo is nourished by what?
placenta
The least complex sexually reproductive systems do not even contain___ the organs that produce gametes in most animals.
gonads.
An example of an animal with a simple system without distinct gonads are?
polychaete worms.
In many species the female reproductive system includes a ______, a sac in which sperm my be stored for a year or more.
spermatheca
In many non mammalian vertebrates, the digestive, excretory, and reproductive systems have a common opening to the outside, the ___.
cloaca.
In mammals ( humans) the male gomads are known as ?
testes.
In mammals the male testes are surrounded by several layers of connective tissue...these tissues are known as?
seminiferous tubules.
The___ scattered b/w the seminiferous tubules produce testosterone and other andorgens.
Leydig cells.
In humans the testes are found in the ____ , outside the abdomnial cavity, a fold in the body wall.
scrotum.
From the seminiferous tubules, the sperm pass into the coiled tubules of the ______.
epdidiymis
During ejaculation, the sperm are propelled from the epididymis through the muscular __ _____. These two ducts run from the scrotum around an dbehind the unrinary bladder...
vas deferens.
vas derferens eventually form a short ______ ______ which opens into the_____.
ejaculatory duct. uretha.
What three accessory glands add secretions to the semen?
sminal vesicles Prostate and bulbourethral glands.
A pair of ____ _____ contributes about 60% of the total volume of the semen.
seminal vesicles.
The ____ gland is the largest of the semen-secreting glands.
prostate.
The ____ glands are a pair of small glands along the urethra below the prostate. Before ejaculation they secrete a clear muscus that neutralizes any acidic urine remainng in the urethra.
bulbourethral glands.
A man usually ejaculates 2-5mL of semen, and each mL contains about ___ to ____ million sperm.
50-300
The human ___ is composed of three cylinders of spongy erictile tissue derived from modified veins and capillaries.
PENIS!!!
Rodents, raccoons, walrusses and other animals actually have a bone that is contained in and hlps stiffen the penis known as a _____
baculum
The main shaft of the penis is covered by relatively thick skin. The head, or ____ penis, has much thinnner covering and is consequently more sensitive to stimulation.
glans
Th human glans is covered by a fold of skinn called the foreskin or ______ wich may be removed by circumcision.
prepuce
The femail gonads are _____
ovaries.
Each ovary is enclosed in a tough protective capsule and contains many _____. These consists of one egg cell.
follicle.
The egg cell is expelled from the follicle in the process of _____-
ovulation.
The ____ ______ secretes additional estrogens and progesterone, the hormone that maintains the uterine lining during pregnacy.
corpus luteum.
The egg cell is released into the abdominal cavity near the opening of the _____
oviduct.
another word for womb.
uterus.
The inner lining of the uterus, the_____ is richly supplied with blood vessels.
endometrium.
The neck of the uteris is the ____, which opens into the vagina.
cervix.
The_____ is a thin walled chamber that forms the birth canal through which the baby is born.
vagina
___ partly covers the vaginal opening until sexual intercourse or vigorous physical activity.
hymen
The vaginal opening and the separate urethral opening are located within a region called the ______
vestibule.
slendor skin folds->
thick fatty ridges->
labia minora
labia majora
____ glands, near the vaginal opening secrete mucus into the vestibule, keeping it lubricated and facilitating intercourse.
Bartholin's glands
Mammary glands are basically what ( hint -> milk)
boobs
______ is the filling of a tissue with blood caused by increased blood flow through the arteries of that tissue.
vasocongestion.
______= increased muscle tension.
myotonia.
What are the four phases of sexual response.
excitment, platue, orgasm, and resolution.
another word for sexual intercourse is
coitus.
_____ is characterized by rhythmic involuntarty contractions of the reproductive structures in both sexes.
orgasm.
_______= the production of mature sperm cells in an adult male.
Spermatogenesis.
______= stem cells that give rise to sperm.
spermatogonia.
In most species, a head containing the haploid nucleus is tipped with a special body known as the ______ which contains enzymes that help the sperm penetrate the egg.
acrosome.
______= the development of ova-mature unfertilezed egg cells.
Oogenesis
In the developing female ______, (embryo) , the stem cells that give rise to ova multiply and then begin meiosis. The cells at this stage are called primary _____.
oogonia
primary oocytes.
the secondary oocyte that is released during ovulation, does not continue meiosis II right away.
take note...meiosis is only complete after penetration by a sperm.
In what three main ways does OOgensis differ from spermatogenesis?
take note of page 985
a ______ is an age specific summary of the survival pattern of a population.
life table
a group of individuals of the same age is know as a____
cohort
a plot of the proportion or numbers in a cohort still alive at each eage is known as a ___ curve.
survivorship
a ____ table, or fertility schedule, is an age specific summary of the reproductive rates in a population.
reproductive table
____ ____ reproduction- a life history in which adults have but a single reproductive opportunity to produce large numbers of offspring such as the life history of the pacific salmon.
big bang
another term for big bang reproduction?
semelparity
________ reproduction or iteroparity


for example some lizards produce only a few large egs during their second year of life, then repeat the reproductive act annually for several years.
repeated reproduction
Which, semelparity or iteroparity , reproduction patterns have a higher survival rate but fewer offspring?
iteroparity.
Which, semelparity or iteroparity, produces a lot of offspring with a low survival rate?
semelparity
A gene's specific location along the length of a chromosome is calle dthe gene's ____
locus.
An individual that reproduces asexually gives rise to a ____.
clone
_____= the filling of a tissue with blood caused by increased blood flow through the arteries of that tissue.
vasocongestion
_____= increased muscle tension.
myotonia.
coitus=_____
sexual reproduction
____ is characterized by rhythmic involuntary contractions of the reproductive structures in both sexes.
orgasm
_____ is the production of mature sperm cells.
spermatogenesis
_______ are the stem cells that give rise to sperm.
spermatogonia.
____ is the development of mature unfertilized egg cells.
Oogenesis.
_____=female embryo
oogonia
In oogenesis in prophase I the cells are called ___.
primary oocytes.
In the process of oogenesis the cells in prophase II of meiosis are called____
secondary oocytes.
Paralleling the menstrual cycle is an ____ cycle
ovarium
The first phase of the ovarian cycle is the _____ phase.
follicular phase ducing which severl follicles in the ovary begin to grow. Out of all the follicles only one continues to grow while the others disintegrate.
The follicular phase of the ovarian cycle ends with _____.
ovulation
Endocrine cells of the corpus leteum secrete female hormones during the ___ phase of the ovarian cycle.
luteal
What five hormones participate in the menstrual and ovarian cycles
gonadotropin realeasing hormone(GnRH)
luteinizing hormone(LH),
two gonadotrophins
estrogens
the ceessation of ovulation and mentruation, b/w the age of 46 and 54 in women is known as______
menopause.
another word for pregnancy
gestation
Pregnacy is preceeded by _____.
conception
Human pregnancy can be divided into three ______ of about 3 months each.
trimesters
dividing=
cleavage
By 1 week after fertilization, cleavage has produced an embryonic stage called the ______
blastocyst.
This disk shaped organ, containing embryonic and maternal blood vesels, grows to about the size of a dinner plate and weighs somewhat less than 1kg?
placenta.
The first trimester is also the main period of ________ the development of the body organs.
organogenesis.
After all the major structures of an adult are present in a rudimentary form the embryo is called a ____.
fetus.
One embryonic hormone _____ _____ ______ acts like a pituitary LH to maintain secretion of progesterone and estrogens by the ocrpus luteum through the first trimester.
human chorionic gonadotropin
Birth or _____ occurse through a series of strong rhthmic uterine contractions commonly know as labor.
parturition.
_____ is an aspect of postnatal care unique to mammals. After birth, decreasing leves of progesterone free in the anterior pituitary from negative feedback and allow prolactin secreation.
lactation.
Preformation
the idea that there are seclusively smaller embryo's within embryos
epigenesis
the idea that an embryo develops into an animal in stages.
When a sperm cell is exposed to molecules from teh slowly dissolving jelly coast that surrounds an egg, a vesicle at the tip of the sperm called the acrosome discharges its contents by exocytosis this is known as the ______ reaction
acrosomal reaction.
____ _____ __ _____ prevents more than one sperm cell from fusing with teh egg's plasma membrane
fast block to polyspermy
Another major effect of the fusion of egg and sperm plasma membranes is the ____ reaction, a series of changes in teh outer zone of the egg cytoplasm.
cortical
The ______ envelope resists the additional sperm.
fertilization.
The fertilization envelope , along with other changes functions as a ____ _____ ___ ____
slow block to polyspermy.
the extracellular matrix of the egg.
zona pellucida.