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103 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
How many bones are in the body?
206
List 4 types of bones
long, flat, short, irregular
what are the names based on
shape
give an example of each
long- femur, humerous, etc
flat- sternum, ribs, skull
short- phalanges
irregular- vertebrae, calacaneous
Define sesamoid
rounded and tapered, ex patella
Define wormian
best example= lamdoid suture
List the 5 things that make up the axial skeleton
skull
vertebrae
ribs
sternum
hyoid
List the 2 things that make up the appendicular skeleton
pelvic girdle
pectoral girdle
List the 6 functions of bone
store/provide minerals, attachment for muscles,
protect soft tissues and organs,
provide body with shape,
make blood cells
where is blood mainly produced?
cranial bones, ribs, sternum, vertebrae, proximal epiphysis of femur and humerous
Name 3 vertebral curves
Kyphosis
Lordosis
Scoliosis
What is Kyphosis?
dorsal distortion of the thoracic spine
What is lordosis
ventral distortion in the lumbar
What is scoliosis?
lateral distortion of spine
What is a slipped disc?
Herniation of nucleous pulposus
What is the calvaria?
Vault of skull
(frontal, parietal, upper occipital)
What is the function of the greater and lesser tuberosities andthe intertubercular groove?
Muscle attachments
bone articulations
nerve/blood vessel locations
Name the major sinus with problems
Maxillary
Name the weight bearing bone in the arm and leg
arm: radius
leg: tibia
name the fingers
Thumb: #1
pointer: #2
middle: #3
ring:#4
pinky:#5
Define wormian
best example= lamdoid suture
List the 5 things that make up the axial skeleton
skull
vertebrae
ribs
sternum
hyoid
List the 2 things that make up the appendicular skeleton
pelvic girdle
pectoral girdle
List the 6 functions of bone
store/provide minerals, attachment for muscles,
protect soft tissues and organs,
provide body with shape,
make blood cells
where is blood mainly produced?
cranial bones, ribs, sternum, vertebrae, proximal epiphysis of femur and humerous
Name 3 vertebral curves
Kyphosis
Lordosis
Scoliosis
What is Kyphosis?
dorsal distortion of the thoracic spine
What is lordosis
ventral distortion in the lumbar
What is scoliosis?
lateral distortion of spine
What is a slipped disc?
Herniation of nucleous pulposus
What is the calvaria?
Vault of skull
(frontal, parietal, upper occipital)
What is the function of the greater and lesser tuberosities andthe intertubercular groove?
Muscle attachments
bone articulations
nerve/blood vessel locations
Name the major sinus with problems
Maxillary
Name the weight bearing bone in the arm and leg
arm: radius
leg: tibia
name the fingers
Thumb: #1
pointer: #2
middle: #3
ring:#4
pinky:#5
What does the head of a bone mean?
The proximal, rounded end.
What is the funtions of vertebral spines and processes?
Muscle attachment
What are the two ways joints are classified?
According to movement
According to structure
What is synarthrosis?
no movement
ex sutures
What is amphiarthrosis?
slight movement
ex vertebrae
what is diarthrosis?
free movement
ex elbow
Give an example of a bony joint
skull
pelvic bones
Give an example of a fibrous joint
radius-ulna
tibia-fibula
pubic symphasis
Give an example of a cartilagenous joint
intevertebral discs
Give an example of synovial joint
knee
List 3 features of a synovial joint.
synovial membrane -> produces fluid
held together by fibrous capsule
ligaments that go from bone to bone
Define bursitis
inflammation of the bursa
Define prepatellar bursitis
knee bursitis
Define olecranon bursitus
elbow bursitis
Define bunion
big toe bursitis
Define meniscus
another cushion
Give an example of a ball and socket joint
hip, shoulder
Give an example of a hinge joint
elbow
Give an example of a pivot joint
radius-ulna,
Give an example of a condyloid joint
wrist, b/w phylanges
Give an example of a gliding/plane joint
b/w carpals
b/w tarsals
Give an example of a saddle joint
base of thumb
Define flexion-extension
shorten angle of joint
increase angle of joint
Define Abduction-adduction
Move away from the body
move towards the body
Define pronation-supination
palms facing down
palms facing up
Define foot inversion-eversion
turning sole of foot inward
turing sole of foot outward
Define rotation
rotating, obviously
Define circumduction
circular movement
Define agonists
muscles that work together to cause the same thing to happen eg: biceps brachii/ bracialis
Define antagonists
muscles that work to acheive opposite effects. eg: biceps brachii/ triceps brachii
Define Aponeurosis
tendon sheath that either encloses muscle ends or holds mucsles in position for support.
Define Insertion
where the muscle tendon attaches on the bone to cause movement
Define Irritability
ability for a stimulus to cause a contraction
Define Origin
Where the mucle attaches but does not cause movement.
Define Prime Mover
most important muscle involed in a particular movement
Define tendon sheath
covering of tendon which lubricates
Define tonicity
abitity of muscle to respond
What are the 4 functions of muscle?
Movement(contractions)
create body heat
store glycogen
gives form to body/protects organs in abdomen
Where are the smallest muscles?
Middle ear
What is the largest muscle
gluteus maximus
What affects the arrangement of muscle fibres?
movement and strenth required
What produces movement?
coordination of several muscles contracting
what is neurovascular hilum?
where blood vessels and nerves enter a muscle
what is the lengh of a muscle fibre?
anywhere from 1mm to 30cm
what is a flexor?
muscle that increases the angle of a joint
what is an extensor
a muscle that decreases the angle of a joint
what is an abductor?
a muscle that moves a bone away from the body
what is an adductor?
a muscle that moves a bone toward the body
What is a rotator?
a muscle that moves a bone around its longitudinal axis
give an example of each:
flexor
extensor
abductor
adductor
rotator
flexor: biceps brachii
extensor: Triceps brachii
abductor: deltiod
adductor: Teres major
rotator: Teres minor
Define element
pure subtance made of one type of atom
Define compound
pure subtance made of two or more types of atoms
Define atom
the smallest component of an element having the chemical properties of the element
Define molecule
combination of atoms that may or may not be the same
(compounds and elements such as H2, o2 etc)
Define organic
compound that contains carbon.
EXCEPTIONS: C0, C02, any radicals (co3)
Define inorganic
compound that does not contain carbon.
same exceptions
Define molecular formula
simply shows numbers of molecules
Define structura;l formula
tells how the atoms are organized inn space
Define valence
the number of electrons in the outer orbital of an atom
Define bonding
electron sharing, electron donation/acception
causes atoms to group together to form a compound
define monosachharides
sugars made of one simple sugar eg glucose, fructose, galactose
define disachharides
sugars made of two simple sugars lactose, maltose sucrose
define polysachharides
sugars made of many simple sugars starch, glycogen, cellulose
What does the benedict's test test for?
Reducing sugars
why do they change colour from blue to brick red?
The copper sulfate (CuSO4) present in Benedict's solution reacts with electrons from the aldehyde or ketone group of the reducing sugar to form cuprous oxide (Cu2O), a red-brown precipitate.
What does the fehling test test for
the presence of aldehydes
where is glycogen stored in the body?
liver and muscle tissue
what is the function of vaginal glycogen
i give up ask kim