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46 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Linnaeus
Systema Naturae
Creationism
Hutton
Uniformitarianism
Lamarck
Inheritance of acquired characteristics
Spontaneous generation
Malthus
Principle of Population
Cuvier
Catastrophism
Special creation
Lyell
Principles of Geology
Darwin
Natural selection
Wallace
Natural selection
Mendel
Principles of heredity
Weismann
Germ plasm theory
Goldschmidt
Hopeful Monsters
Mutationist
Wright
Genetic drift
Catastrophism
The view that the earth's history is marked by periodic, worldwide catastrophies
Creationism
The view that the universe was made by a divine creator
Essentialism - typological thinking
The philosophical view that all members of a class of objects chare certain invariant, unchanging properties (essence) that distinguish them from other classes
Gradualism
The view that evolution is gradual; natural selection works gradually
"Hopeful Monster"
Term used to describe the theory that the origin of new species and higher taxa (as opposed to evolution w/in populations) is by sudden, drastic changes in the entire genome. These changes were considered to be usually deleterious, yet occasionally they produced a viable, and very different, organism
Lamarckism
The theory that evolution is caused by the inheritance of acquired characteristics
Mendelists
Those that held that evolution proceeds by discrete jumps/steps because genes, thus inheritance, are particulate, not gradual as Darwin and natural selection predict
Modern Synthesis - synthetic theory
The reconciliation of Darwin's evolution by natural selection w/ Mendelian genetics. Achieved thru population genetics
Mutationism
The theory that mutation is the major force in evolution and not natural selection
Neodarwinism
The view that natural selection is the sole mechanism of evolution. Later used to refer to natural selection combined w/ genetics; holds that natural selection is a major, not sole, cause of evolution
Orthogenesis
The view that variation in species is directed towards fixed goals and species evolve in a predetermined direction
Special Creation
The view that god creates new living species periodically, such as after a catastrophy
Spontaneous Generation
The view that life originates spontaneously from inanimate matter
Uniformitarianism
The theory that the processes that we observed in the past are the same as those we observed today
Anthropocentricism
The world view that man is the center of the universeor the ultimate end. Interpreting natural processes or phenomena in terms of man or the human mind
Deductive Reasoning
Reasoning from the general to the specific
Epistemology
The study of knowledge
Fact - observation, evidence
Observable phenomenon
Hypothesis
An informed statement of what might be true
Inductive Reasoning
Reasoning from specific to general
Paradigm
Pervasive world view
Theory
A body of interconnected statements, based on reasoning and evidence, that explains a variety of observations
Theological Explanation
An explanation that explains the existene or occurrence of something by citing a gola or purpose that is served by a thing
Genetic Drift
Random change in allelic frequencies in a population. In small populations, genetic variation at a locus may be lost by chance fixation of a single allelic variant
Natural Selection
Nonrandom reproduction of varying organisms in a population that results in the survival of those best adapted to their environment and elimination of those less well adapted; leads to evoutionary change if the variation is heritable
Phylogeny
The origin and diversification of any taxon, or the evolutionary history of its origin and diversification
Directional Selection
A selective process in which and extreme value of a quantitative phenotype is favored, potentially causing a change in the mean value of the phenotype
Disruptive Selection
A selective proces in which the mean value of a quantitative phenotype is disfavored over extreme values, potentially causing a bimodal distribution of phenotypes to evolve
Stabilizing Selection
A selective proces in which the mean value of a quantitative phenotype is favored over extreme values, potentially stabilizing the mean value
Soma
The whole of an organism except the germ
Germ
Cell lineages giving rise to the germ cells of a multicellular organism
Homology
Similar traits caused by common ancestor
Analogy
Similar traits caused by reasons other than common ancestor
Monophyletic Group
Contains the most recent common ancestor of all members of the group and all of its descendants