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12 Cards in this Set

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Characteristics of Seed Plants
heteroprorous (produce 2 types of spores)

zygote is start of sporophyte

pollen adaptation means water i not needed for reproduction

outer shell of sporangium hardens to produce seed protection of embryo

vascular tissues = large bodies

sprorphyte dominate
Heterosporous - Name 2 types of spores
1. microspores - produce male gametophytes which are individual pollen grains

2. megaspores - produce female gametophytes one cell makes egg
Gymnosperms
naked seed (AKA no fruit)
Gymnosperms: 4 Divisions
Cycads (Cycadophyta) - tropical (look like palms)

Ginkgo (Ginkgophyta) - only one species left, derived in China

Gnetae (Gnetaphyta) - diverse group (treelike, shrubs, vines)

Conifers (Coniferophyta) - monst common/largest
Division Coniferophyta: Common Types
pine, fir, spruce, hemlock, redwood, sequoia, cypress, cedar
Division Coniferophyta: Sprorphyte Stage: Leaf Characteristics
Leaves = Needles
- produced in bundles called fasicles (1-8 needles/fasicle)
- have waxy cuticle which prevents water loss
Division Coniferophyta: Gametophyte Stage: Pollen Cone
Staminate (pollen cones)
- small (only last a few weeks)
- occur on lower branches
- whorls of microsporangia where pollen is produced
Division Coniferophyta: Gametophyte Stage: Pollen
pollen grain matures to it's final multicellular stage
- 2 prothallial cells - degenerative (die)
- generative cell - divides by mitosis to make 2 sperm
- tube cell - forms pollen tube
Division Coniferophyta: Gametophyte Stage: Ovulate seed
Ovulate Seed (Pine Cone)
- grow on upper branches
- whorl of heavy scales with 2 ovules on upper surface of each scale
Division Coniferophyta: Gametophyte Stage: Ovulate seed: Ovule
a small complex reproductive organ which protects sproangium

coat of ovulate will surround and protect embryo
Division Coniferophyta: Gametophyte Stage: Embryo: What do these structures turn into?

the parent sporophyte ->
embryo ->
food stores ->
the parent sporophyte -> seed coat
embryo -> sprorphyte of next generation
food stores -> haploid feamle gametophyte tissues
Division Coniferophyta: How long does it take for a pine seed to develop and be shed?
Can take over a year to be completed. Can take up to an additional year for the seed to form. Seed can be shed whenever conditions are prime.