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37 Cards in this Set

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Define articulation:
exists wherever two bones interact aka as a joint
Joint Classification:

What do you classify joints by?
The range of movement and function; 3 types.
Joint Classification:

Type 1 - Synarthroses
immovable joints where bony edges are close together and may interlock, eg. suture in skull, gomphosis b/w teeth and jaw, synchondrosis b/w bone and cart and synostosis where 2 bones fuse
Joint Classification:

Type 2 - Amphiarthroses
slightly moveable; eg. syndesmosis where collagen fibers connect bones of the leg, or symphysis where bones are sep by a cartilage pad
Joint Classification:

Type 3 - Diathroses
aka synovial joint;Freely movable; posses a joint capsule, articular cart, fluid filled synovial cavity, synovial membrane, acessory capsular ligaments, sensory nerves and blood vessels; can also include menisci, fat pads, tendons, ligs, discs.
If a joint has a lot of mobility, is it strong?
The greater the strength the lesser the mobility.
Articular Form and Fx:
Dynamic motion classification
linear, angular (angle b/w shaft and articular surface changes), and rotation (spinning)
Articular Form and Fx:
Axis of motion -
either monaxial, biaxial or triaxial, depending on # of axes along which they permit movement
Articular Form and Fx:
Types of Movement - gliding
when opposing surfaces at an articulation slide past each other
Articular Form and Fx:
Types of Movement - Angular motion
abduction (away), adduction, flexion, extension, hyperextension,circumduction that includes all the above excpet hyperextension
Articular Form and Fx:
Types of Movement - Rotation of the head
of the head is shaking it left or right
Articular Form and Fx:
Types of Movement - Internal (medial) or external (lateral) rotation
when the anterior of the limb either turns toward or away from the ventral surface of the body
Articular Form and Fx:
Types of Movement - Pronation and Supination
Pro - palms facing back, sup - motion to bring palms facing forward
Articular Form and Fx:
Types of Movement - Eversion and Inversion
Special mvmt of the foot, eversion brings the sole of the foot out and inversion brings the sole in
Articular Form and Fx:
Types of Movement - plantar flexion
Special mvmt of ankle; motion of standing on tip toes
Articular Form and Fx:
Types of Movement - Lateral Flexion
when vertebral column bends to the side
Articular Form and Fx:
Types of Movement - Protraction
moving a body part anteriorly, like the jutting out of the lower jaw
Articular Form and Fx:
Structural Classification of Synovial Joints - Plane joints
permit limited movement, usually in a single plane
Articular Form and Fx:
Structural Classification of Synovial Joints - Hinge joints and pivot joints
monaxial joints that permit angular movement in a single plane
Articular Form and Fx:
Structural Classification of Synovial Joints - ball and socket
triaxial, permits all combos of movement including rotation
Representative Articulations:

The Temporomandibular joint
involves mandibular fossa of temporal bone and the condylar process of the manidlve; rel loose hinge joint permits little gliding and rotation
Representative Articulations:

Intervertebral Articulations
sup and inferior articular processes of vertebrae form plance joints, the bodies for syphyseal joints, sep by intervertebral discs filled with nucleus pulposus (soft gelatin core), andannulus fibers
Representative Articulations:

Intervertebral Articulations allow what movements?
flexion, extension, lateral flexion and rotaion
Representative Articulations:

The Sternoclavicular Joint
plane joint, capsule is reinforced by inter/sternoclavicular ligaments
Representative Articulations:

The Shoulder Joint
aka glenohumeral joint, loose shallow joint that permits greatest range of motion, ball and socket diathrosis, stregth and stability sacrificed for mobilty, bursae reduce friction
Representative Articulations:

Elbow Joint
hinge joint; permits flexion and extension; really 2 joints; stabilized by radial, ulnar and annular ligaments; a synovial joint
Representative Articulations:

Joints of the wrist
formed by distal radioulnar joint, radiocarpal and intercapal joints (planar), permits pronation, supination, condylar pronation and supination, flexion, extension, adduct, abduct and circum., stabilized by CT capsule and ligaments
Representative Articulations:

The Hip joint
ball and socket diathrosis formed by the acetabulum of the os coxae and the head of the humerus, permits flex/exte, abb/add, circum and rotation
Representative Articulations:

What stabilizes the hip joint?
4 broad ligaments: iliofemoral, pubofemoral, ischiofemoral and transverse acetabular ligaments, plus the ligament of the femoral head
Representative Articulations:

The Knee Joint
complex hinge joint; rep 3 sep joints (the med/lat condyles of the femur and tibia, and the patella and patellar surface of the femur; permits flex/exten and lim rotation.
Representative Articulations:

The Knee Joint's articular capsule
not a single unified capsule w/ a common synovial cavity, has fibrocartilage pads, med/lat menisci and fat pads.
Representative Articulations:

What stablizes the knee joint?
paterllar tibial collateral, fibular collateral, 2 popliteal, and anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments (ACL/PCL)
Representative Articulations:

Ankle Joints
aka talocrural joint; hinge joint, ligaments prevent medial and lateral sliding of the tibia across the trochlear surface, permits dorsiflexion/plantar flexion, stabilized by deltoid and lateral ligaments
Representative Articulations:

Foot Joints
4 synovial joints in the foot: intertarsal, tarsometatarsol (plane diathrosis), metatarsophalengeal (condylar diarthrosis for flexion/ext, add/abd, and interpharengeal (hinge diarthrosis, permits flex/ext
what does synovial fluid do?
absorbs shock, lubricates joint and provides nutrients
Why are luxatations painful?
Due to the stimulation of the pain receptors in the capsule, ligaments and tendons around the joint.
List the movement capabilities of joints:
great stability decreases mobility; may be modified by acessory ligaments and collagen fibers of the joint capsule; may be directed or restriced to certain directions by the shape of the articulating surface.