• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/213

Click to flip

213 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Which of the following opiates are analgesics?
morphine
codeine
amphetamine
-morphine
-codeine
Is amphetamine an analgesic?
no
Support for the theory that tolerance is triggered by drug-induced changes in neural activity rather than from drug exposure per se came from the finding in one study that tolerance did not develop to the anticonvulsant effects of alcohol unless
convulsive stimulation was administered after each alcohol injection.
Evidence suggests that the hyperphagia of rats with large bilateral VMH lesions may be mediated by
increases in insulin release.
Large bilateral lesions of the lateral hypothalamus produce
aphagia and adipsia
Evidence from the sham-eating study of Weingarten and Kulikovsky (1989) suggests that the amount that we eat at a meal is influenced by
our previous experience of the physiological consequences of the same food.
If you were to eliminate 500 calories from your daily diet, you would likely (weight loss pattern)
initially lose weight, but the amount lost each day would decline until a new stable weight was reached.
Briefly point-form leaky-barrel model of body weight regulation.
-is a settling-point model.
-can account for the fact that body weight often remains relatively stable.
-can account for the fact that compensatory changes occur to reduce decreases or increases in body weight.
-can account for the fact that dieters tend to regain lost weight once they go off their diets.
Mutant ob/ob mice:
-have high leptin levels.
-tend to be obese.
-are heterozygous for the mutant gene.
-all of the above
-both A and B
tend to be obese
Although the __________ assumption is engrained in most people's thinking, it is inconsistent with most of the evidence.
set-point
Anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa are often viewed as variants of the same disorder because
ALL OF THE ABOVE:
-both anorexic patients and bulimic patients have distorted body images.
-many patients straddle the two diagnoses.
-both anorexia and bulimia are correlated with obsessive-compulsive disorder.
-both disorders display the same pattern of distribution in the general population.
Don poured himself half a glass of milk. Because he was thirsty, he added half a glass of water to it. In doing so, Don
halved the milk's nutritive density.
What surgical procedure is illustrated here?
adjustable gastric band
Negative feedback systems in the body tend to maintain
homeostasis.
Weingarten's studies showed that the initiation of eating can be a consequence of
Pavlovian conditioning.
The various phenomena of REM sleep appear to be controlled by circuits scattered throughout the
caudal reticular formation
Volunteers who are allowed to sleep without interruption after several nights of REM deprivation tend to get (in reference to REM after study)
significantly more REM sleep than usual.
Disorders of excessive sleep or sleepiness are classified as
hypersomnia.
How much sleep do we really need? According to the text, the evidence suggests that, if sleep is monophasic, the answer seems to be about __________ hours per night for most people.
5.5
Adaptation theories of sleep assume that we are programmed to sleep at night (only if/regardless)
regardless of what we do during the day.
Most studies and personal experiences of sleep deprivation are confounded by
stress
What are problems associated with the long-term use of benzodiazepines to treat insomnia?
-tolerance
-reduction of life expectancy
-distortion of normal sleep
-next-day drowsiness.
Cataplexy is common in cases of
narcolepsy.
Which of the following animals spend about 14 hours per day sleeping?
cats
Where is the substantia nigra?
the mesencephalon
Chronic use of which drug has been linked to bronchitis, emphysema, cancer, stroke, and heart attack?
tobacco
Withdrawal from which of the following drugs produces the DTs?
none of the above (alcohol)
Studies of electrical intracranial self-stimulation have influenced the development of biopsychological theories of addiction by indicating that
there are particular areas of the brain that mediate the experience of pleasure.
In the middle ages, marijuana was commonly used by Europeans to
make rope
In addition to the nucleus accumbens, the prefrontal cortex, the hippocampus, and the amygdala are thought to play major roles in
the initial taking of addictive drugs.
Which of the following drugs produces Buerger's disease?
tobacco
Modern physical-dependence theories of drug addiction attempt to account for the fact that addicts frequently relapse after lengthy drug-free periods by postulating
that conditioned withdrawal effects are the basis of drug craving.
The substantia nigra and the ventral tegmental area are mesencephalic nuclei of the
mesotelencephalic DOPAMINE system
What is the defining feature of addiction?
the inability to stop using a drug despite efforts to do so
Drug tolerance is a shift in the dose-response curve in what direction?
to the right
_______ tolerance to psychoactive drugs is tolerance that occurs because less drug gets to its site of action in the brain.
metabolic
What is most likely to occur after the loss of a small amount of sleep?
disturbances of vigilance
What do eastern flights cause?
phase advances, speed up most zeitgebers (NOT slow)
Immediately following a meal, glucose levels in the blood do not increase as much as they otherwise might because...
insulin promotes the use of glucose by the body (NOT glucagon promotes lipo)
What are the two fundamentally different answers to “How much sleep do we need?”
1. stresses the presumed health-promoting and recuperative powers of sleep and suggests that people need as much sleep as they can comfortably get (usually 8+ hours a night)
2. many of us sleep more than we need to and our consequently sleeping part of our life away
The EEG waves that accompany sleep are generally _____ voltage and _______ EEG activity.
-high; slow
Rapid eye movements (REMs) occur during periods of ____voltage, _____ EEG activity.
-low voltage, fast
What are the three standard psychophysiological measures of sleep?
-electroencephalogram (EEG) (brainwaves)
-electrooculogram (EOG) (eye movements)
-the neck electromyogram (EMG) (muscle movement)
There is a loss of electromyographic activity in the neck muscles during what sleep period(s)?
REM
What is the “first-night phenomenon”?
-the disturbance of sleep observed during the first night in a sleep laboratory
What are alpha waves?
-waving and waning bursts of 8- to 12-Hz EEG waves
What two characteristic wave forms punctuate stage 2 sleep?
-K complexes and sleep spindle
What is stage 1 sleep EEG like?
-low-voltage, high frequency signal that is similar to, but slower than, that of alert wakefulness
What is a K complex?
-a single large negative wave (upward deflection) followed immediately by a single large positive wave (downward deflection)
What is a sleep spindle?
-a 1- to 2-second waxing and waning burst of 12- to 14-Hz waves
What is stage 2 sleep EEG like?
-higher voltage/lower frequency than 1
-with appearance of K complexes and sleep spindles
In what stage do sleep spindles and K complexes occur?
-stage 2
What is stage 3 sleep EEG like?
-higher voltage/lower frequency than 2
-defined by the occasional presence of delta waves
As you progress from stage 1 to stage 4, what becomes higher and what becomes lower?
higher voltage

lower frequency
What are delta waves?
-the largest and slowest EEG waves, with a frequency of 1 to 2 Hz
What is stage 4 sleep EEG like?
- higher voltage/lower frequency than 3
-defined by a predominance of delta waves
What is the difference between initial stage 1 EEG and emergent stage 1 EEG?
initial stage 1 EEG) is not marked by any striking electromyographic or electrooculographic changes, whereas subsequent periods of stage 1 sleep EEG (emergent stage 1 EEG) are accompanied by REMs and by a loss of tone in the muscles of the body core.
How long is a sleep cycle?
tends to be about 90 minutes long
as the night progresses, more and more time is spent in what stage of sleep? less in what stage in particular?
emergent stage 1

-less in stage 4 in partic
What stage is REM sleep?
emergent stage 1
what is NREM sleep?
all except for emergent stage 1
Stages 3 and 4 (sleep EEG) together are referred to as _______.
-slow-wave sleep (SWS); after the delta waves that characterize them
What are the physiological correlates of REM sleep?
-REMs
-loss of core-muscle tone
-low-amplitude, high-frequency EEG
-cerebral activity (eg oxygen consumption, blood flow, and neural firing) increases to waking levels in many brain structures
-there is a general increase in the variability of autonomic nervous system activity (eg in blood pressure, pulse, and respiration)
-the muscles of the extremities occasionally twitch
-often some degree of penile erection in males
What evidence supports the theory that REM sleep is the physiological correlate of dreaming? (Kleitman)
-the observation that 80% of awakenings from REM sleep but only 7% of awakenings from NREM sleep led to dream recall.
-NREM = isolated (ie falling)
-REM = stories
All set-point systems are __________ systems.
negative feedback
Set-point theories of hunger and eating are inconsistent with
-eating-related evolutionary pressures as we understand them.
-the major effects on eating of taste, learning, and social factors.
-the failure of researchers to confirm that energy deficits are the usual stimulus for eating.
Set-point, negative-feedback systems are one way of maintaining
homeostasis
The set-point theory of body weight regulation is designed to explain
how the weights of adults stay constant.
Inconsistent with set-point theories of hunger and eating is the fact that
flavor has a major impact on hunger and eating.
The idea that the LH is a hunger center has largely been abandoned because
bilateral LH lesions produce severe and general motor disturbances and reduce responsiveness to all kinds of sensory input.
Grossly obese rats with large bilateral VMH lesions often
-are unwilling to work for food.
-will not eat food that is slightly unpalatable.
Evidence suggests that the effects of large bilateral VMH lesions on eating are, in part, caused by damage to the __________ or its connections.
paraventricular nuclei
The body stores energy as
fats, glycogen, protein
The conversion of protein to glucose is called
gluconeogenesis
What is gluconeogenesis?
the conversion of protein to glucose
CCK, bombesin, glucagon, and somatostatin
are peptides AND released from the gut (NOT increase food)
__________ have been shown to reduce hunger, eating, and body weight.
Serotonin agonists
Many people believe that hunger is a product of
energy deficits
Consuming a high-calorie drink before a meal reliably
none of the above (reduces NOTHING!)
As a meal is consumed, what happens to PIVs?
-rapid decline in PIV of consumed food

-gradual decline in the PIV of all foods

*nothing to do with digestion
__________ encourages the consumption of a varied diet.
Sensory-specific satiety
Sham-eating procedures typically reduce caloric intake into the bloodstream during a meal by
100%
Insulin promotes the
-conversion of glucose to glycogen and fat.
-use of glucose as the primary source of energy by the body.
-storage of glycogen and fat.
Immediately following a meal, glucose levels in the blood do not increase as much as they otherwise might because
insulin promotes the use of glucose by the body.
Receptors for insulin and leptin are particularly dense in the
arcuate nucleus.
The leaky-barrel model of body weight regulation is a
-settling-point model.
-negative-feedback model.
-an improved alternative to the thermostat analogy.
Which of the following cases can be readily accounted for by the leaky-barrel model, but not by traditional set-point models?
A women married a cook, and her weight rapidly increased by 5 kilograms; the added weight stayed, despite her efforts to lose it.
The level at which the various factors that influence body weight achieve an equilibrium is called the body weight
leaky barrel.
The leaky-barrel model of body weight regulation
-is a settling-point model.
-can account for the fact that body weight often remains relatively stable.
-can account for the fact that compensatory changes occur to reduce decreases or increases in body weight.
-can account for the fact that dieters tend to regain lost weight once they go off their diets.
Leptin has proven effective in the treatment of obesity in
those who are homozygous for the mutant ob gene
Leptin is to insulin as subcutaneous fat is to
visceral fat.
Both galanin and neuropeptide Y
-are peptides.
-increase eating.

*NOT CCK
According to the text, anorexic patients - or anybody else who is severely undernourished - should not be fed
meals
The rate at which resting individuals utilize their energy resources to maintain their basic body processes is
the basal metabolic rate.
What is the the basal metabolic rate?
rate at which resting individuals utilize their energy resources to maintain their basic body processes
It seems clear that warm-blooded animals that have ready access to a variety of palatable foods eat far more than is optimal for their health. Evidence of this point comes from
studies of the good health of ----humans who eat less than others.
-experiments on the effects of calorie restriction in many different species

*NOT BRAIN DAMAGE*
According to the lipostatic theory,
-each person has a body-fat set point.
-maintaining fat levels in the body at homeostatic levels is a major factor in the long-term regulation of food intake.

*fat levels nothing to do with it*
Rats that have lived for several weeks with access to only a single laboratory chow that is devoid of thiamine
will often learn to prefer the taste of a new diet that contains thiamine.
Rats eat __________ when fed __________.
more; in groups
The transition between the absorptive and fasting phase occurs when
the body stops deriving its energy from the fuels still circulating in the blood from the previous meal.
Negative feedback systems in the body tend to maintain
homeostasis.
Which of the following dangerous effects usually occur in humans after periods of sleep deprivation longer than 24 hours?
none of the above
Loss of 3 or 4 hours of sleep for one night has been found to reliably
disrupt the performance of intelligence tests.
disturb mood.
disrupt motor performance.
reduce strength.
The apparatus illustrated here is used to study
sleep deprivation
The effects of the carousel apparatus are difficult to interpret because
in addition to producing sleep deprivation, it produces confounding stress.
The carousel apparatus has been used to study sleep deprivation in
rats
The finding that sleep becomes more efficient in people who regularly sleep less is a key finding because it indicates that
sleep-deprivation studies can indicate how much sleep people need ONLY if the volunteers who are being studied are efficient sleepers.
Slow-wave sleep seems to play a particularly important role in the recuperative effects of sleep. The following is major evidence for this conclusion:
-People regain only a small portion of their lost sleep following a period of sleep deprivation, but they regain most of their lost stage 4.

-Volunteers who have reduced the amount that they sleep each night have usually accomplished this without substantially reducing the amount of stages 3 and 4 sleep.
Which does not belong with the others?


dreaming
emergent stage 1 EEG
REM
initial stage 1 EEG
loss of core muscle tone
initial stage 1 EEG
Desynchronized EEG is
low amplitude, high frequency.
The EEG of a cerveau isolé is desynchronized only during
intense visual or olfactory stimuli.
A free-running rhythm is a rhythm without any external
zeitgebers.
The most influential circadian zeitgeber is the
light-dark cycle.
A good workout on the day after an east-bound flight might speed up recovery from jet lag. If the flight were from San Francisco to Toronto, a 3-hour phase advance, a good time to work out would be __________ San Francisco time.
4:30 a.m.
The first night-phenomenon is often experienced
on a volunteer's first night of sleep in a laboratory.
Sleep apnea commonly results from
all of the above
The practice of diagnosing people as neurotic pseudoinsomniacs stopped when it was discovered that many people
who complain of insomnia sleep most of the night but unknowingly suffer from sleep apnea, nocturnal myoclonus, or some other sleep-disturbing disorder.
A vivid dreamlike state during wakefulness, often just as one awakens or falls asleep, is
a hypnagogic hallucination.
What is a hypnagogic hallucination.?
a vivid dreamlike state during wakefulness, often just as one awakens or falls asleep
Theories postulating that sleep permits the body to recover from internal deficits produced by wakefulness are often referred to as
recuperation theories.
slow-wave sleep seems to play a particularly important _____ role.
recuperative
Research has shown that naps have recuperative powers out of proportion with their
brevity
The fact that most people sleep almost exactly the same amount each day under free-running conditions, despite large day-to-day variations in physical and mental activity provides strong support for the dominance of
recuperative factors in the regulation of sleep.
The association of REM sleep and dreaming was discovered in the early 1950s in the laboratory of
Kleitman
According to the default theory, REM sleep and
wakefulness are similar.
The default theory is a theory of
REM sleep.
In view of the evidence, the widespread practice of taking melatonin to promote sleep is
likely to be of no more than minor benefit.
Melatonin appears to be effective in treating
-insomnia that results from a melatonin deficiency.

-insomnia that results from the failure of light to serve as a zeitgeber in blind patients.

NOT hypersomnia.
Evidence suggests that melatonin functions as a
chronobiotic.
The encephale isolé preparation is produced by transecting the
caudal brain stem.
Studies of encephalitis lethargica suggested that the __________ promotes wakefulness
posterior hypothalamus
K complexes and sleep spindles
-occur during stage 2 sleep
-are EEG waves
Sleep spindles and K complexes are characteristic of
stage 2 sleep
Each cycle of sleep during the night tends to be about
90 minutes long
During REM sleep, there
is an absence of EMG activity in the muscles of the body core.

no muscles or bursts!
One neuropsychological patient had virtually no REM sleep following a brain injury, and he
did not seem to be adversely affected.
In the initial report of the relation between dream recall and REM sleep, what proportion of awakenings from REM sleep led to dream reports?
80%
In one study, volunteers gradually reduced the number of hours that they slept each night, until they felt that they had reached their limit. On the average, this limit was
5 hours.
Microsleeps are usually about __________ long.
3 seconds
During REM sleep, there
is an absence of EMG activity in the muscles of the body core.

*NO MUSCLE BURSTS*
In one study, 8 volunteers reduced their sleep by 30 minutes per night until they did not want to reduce it further. A major finding was that
all of above
Theories postulating that sleep permits the body to recover from internal deficits produced by wakefulness are often referred to as
recuperation theories.
There is more than one circadian clock. Early evidence for this was that bilateral lesions of the
suprachiasmatic nuclei do NOT abolish circadian rhythms.
The diurnal light-dark cycle entrains the sleep-wake cycle via the
retinohypothalamic tracts.

think eyes!!
Following the completion of one week of REM-sleep deprivation, volunteers
have a greater than usual proportion of REM sleep for 2 or 3 nights.
Professor Bland sometimes falls asleep while she is having a discussion. She would likely be diagnosed as having
narcolepsy
Eastern flights
cause phase advances and SPEED up zeitgebers (not slow!!)
Delta waves occur in stage
3 and 4
Which of the following is characterized by a low-amplitude, high-frequency sleep EEG signal that is similar to that observed during active wakefulness?
stage 1
Which of the following is a causal factor in some cases of insomnia?
sleeping pills
sleep apnea
nocturnal myoclonus
restless legs
The 8-to-12 Hz EEG waves that are often associated with relaxed wakefulness are called
alpha waves
Circadian means
lasting about 1 day
Evidence suggests that melatonin functions as a
chronobiotic.
The EOG is a measure of
eye movement (NOT tension)
Several large-scale studies documented the sleep patterns and health of healthy volunteers for several years. They found that people who slept __________ hours per night tended to live the longest.
5-7
Many sleep-deprivation studies have assessed its impact on human
physiological function.

mood.

cognition.
The first mammalian circadian gene to have its structure characterized was
"clock"
The various phenomena of REM sleep appear to be controlled by circuits scattered throughout the
caudal reticular formation.
Interest in the efficiency of polyphasic sleep was stimulated by stories of
Leonardo da Vinci.
Originally, the nucleus accumbens was thought to mediate the experience of reward, but some current evidence suggests that increases in extracellular dopamine occur in the nucleus accumbens when the
subject expects the reward.
Wich drug is currently an alternative to methadone as a treatment for heroin addiction?
buprenorphine
Which of the following drugs produces hypothermia (a reduction in body temperature)?
alcohol
Withdrawal from which of the following drugs produces convulsions?
alcohol
Although __________ is extremely addictive, there are few serious withdrawal symptoms when a characteristic binge is terminated.
cocaine
"Song of Praise" to cocaine was written by
Freud
Like alcohol, cocaine is frequently consumed in
binges
The main psychoactive ingredient of coca paste is
cocaine hydrochloride.
Opiates likely exert their psychoactive effects by binding to
opiate receptors.
Restlessness, watery eyes, running nose, yawning, and sweating are all early signs of withdrawal from
opiates
The term "kicking the habit" refers to one of the symptoms of __________ withdrawal.
opiate
Which of the following is not an effect of chronic opiate exposure?
hypersexuality
In 1644, the Emperor of China banned tobacco smoking. This law contributed to an increase in __________ addiction.
opium
Dr. William Stewart Halsted, a brilliant surgeon and one of the founders of Johns Hopkins Medical School, is considered by many to be the father of modern surgery. Surprisingly, he was addicted to __________ throughout most of his brilliant career.
morphine
Which of the following is the strongest psychoactive ingredient of opium?
morphine
Which drug has been shown to increase the rate of cancer and heart disease in nonusers of the drug who are living with users of the drug?
tobacco
In the middle ages, marijuana was commonly used by Europeans to
make rope
Depression, anxiety, restlessness, irritability, constipation, and difficulties in sleeping and concentrating are common __________ withdrawal symptoms.
nicotine
Many researchers believe that a major cause of drug relapse is
priming.
stress.
drug-related cues.
Which of the following seem to share some brain mechanisms with drug addiction?
kleptomania
overeating
compulsive shopping
The lack of strong support for early physical-dependence theories of addiction lent indirect support to the notion that the primary factors in drug addiction are
the drug's positive-incentive properties.
According to the incentive-sensitization theory of addiction, all addictive drugs produce
sensitization to the effects that influence the positive-incentive value of the drug.
Which of the following is a finding about addiction that is currently influencing the study of its brain mechanisms?
ALL
According to Ramsay and Woods, the unconditional stimulus in drug conditioning experiments is
the disruption of neural functioning that is directly produced by the drug.
Support for the theory that tolerance is triggered by drug-induced changes in neural activity rather than from drug exposure per se came from the finding in one study that tolerance did not develop to the anticonvulsant effects of alcohol unless
convulsive stimulation was administered after each alcohol injection.
The early physical-dependence theories of drug addiction were discredited by the observation that
detoxified addicts almost always return to their drug-taking habits.
Taking one drug can often produce tolerance to other drugs; such tolerance is called
cross-tolerance
Siegel's conditioning theory of drug tolerance is based heavily on demonstrations of
the situational specificity of tolerance.
Individuals who suffer drug withdrawal symptoms when they stop taking a drug are said to be
physically dependent.

NOT addicted or psychol
After the termination of exposure to some drugs, there are withdrawal effects, that are usually
opposite to the initial effects of the drug.
A state of decreased sensitivity to a drug as a result of previous exposure to the drug is called
drug tolerance.
Many early studies of intracranial self-stimulation focused on the stimulation of the
lateral hypothalamus or septum.
Some animals will not begin a session of lever pressing for rewarding brain stimulation unless they are given a few free stimulations. This is called
priming
Evidence indicates that one common health hazard of chronic marijuana smoking is
respiratory dysfunction.
The term "kicking the habit" refers to one of the symptoms of __________ withdrawal.
opiate
Illustrated here is a paradigm that is used to study addictive drugs: the
drug self-administration paradigm.
Modern physical-dependence theories of drug addiction attempt to account for the fact that addicts frequently relapse after lengthy drug-free periods by postulating
that conditioned withdrawal effects are the basis of drug craving.
According to Ramsay and Woods, the unconditional stimulus in drug conditioning experiments is
the disruption of neural functioning that is directly produced by the drug.
Which country has taken a novel approach to the problem of heroin addiction, an approach that is proving to be an unqualified success?
Switzerland
The Harrison Narcotics Act, which was passed in the U.S. in 1914, unintentionally encouraged the use of
heroin
Taking one drug can often produce tolerance to other drugs; such tolerance is called
cross tolerance
A hangover is a
mild withdrawal symptom
Cocaine hydrochloride
A B (agonist + reduces reuptake of dopamine)
The mesotelencephalic dopamine system comprises two pathways: The
nigrostriatal pathway and the mesocorticolimbic pathway.

NEGROMESO
According to the text, addicts are drug users who
continue to use a drug despite the drug's adverse effects on their health and social life, and despite their efforts to stop.
Pregnant females who use __________ risk bearing a child with physical deformities and mental retardation.
alcohol
Which of the following illicit drugs was grown by George Washington as a commercial crop?
marijuana
According to Siegel, heroin users are more likely to die from an overdose when they
take heroin in an environment in which they have never taken it before.
Tolerance that occurs because the target tissue becomes less reactive to the drug after exposure is
functional tolerance
The "high" experienced by cocaine users was found in one study to be related to the degree of binding of the cocaine to
dopamine TRANSPORTERS

trainspotting?
The severity of withdrawal symptoms depends upon the
ALL
According to the incentive-sensitization theory of addiction, all addictive drugs produce
sensitization to the effects that influence the positive-incentive value of the drug.
Convulsions and delirium tremens are caused by withdrawal from
alcohol
In the United States, about __________ million people are addicted to nicotine, alcohol, or both.
60