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### 121 Cards in this Set

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 case control study observational. choose ppl who have (cases) or don;t (controls) and collect info on risk factors cohort study choose ppl who do, and don't have a given risk factor. See what happens how are results for cohort study presented relative risk results for case control study are presented odd ratios drawback for case control recall bias weakness in cohort selection bias late look bias information gathered at inappropriate time prevalence ? incidence for chronic dz > prevalence ? incidence for acute dz = formula for prevalence prevalence=incidents x dz duration formula for sensitivity a/(a+c) formula specificity D/(B+D) how are sensitivity/spec in relation to predictive value sensit/spec looks at ppl w or w/o dz, predictive value looks at ppl w + or - test in words formula for sensitivty taking all ppl w dz, how many (%) have a positive test in words formula for specif taking all the ppl w/o dz, how many (%) had a negative test positive predictive value-in words to the pt if positive test, how likely is it the pt actually has the dz PPV formula in words number ppl w dz divided by number of ppl who tested + NPV-in words to pt if had neg test, how likely you don't have dz NPV formula in words number of ppl w/o dz divided by number ppl who tested - NPV formula d/(C+D) PPV formula A/(A+B) how does prevalence effect PPV higher prevalence, the higher the PPV decline in prevalence, the higher the NPV T/F Unlike sensitivity and specificity, predictive values depend on incidence F PREVALENCE odd ratio in words number w dz / number w/o dz divided by odds in other grp or odds of having dz if you were in exposed grp vs. unexposed group when does odds ratio ~ relative risk if low prevalence formula odds ratio A/B / C/D true pos/false pos / true neg/false neg formula relative risk in words number w dz/ all who tested positive / number w/o dz/all who tested - formula relative risk a/(a+b) / c/(c+d) how does random error effect test reduces precision how does systematic error effect test reduces accuracy positive skew on curve tail is on the up side, so most ppl were under what was reported as avg (mean>median>mode) negative skew on curve tail is on the down side, the majority were higher than what was reported as avg (mean5 for wks incl depression, anhedronia heroin addiction related dx hep, abscesses, OD, hemorrhoid, AIDs, right-sided endocarditis manic dx last>1wk DIG FAST Distract. Insomnia Grandiosity Flight of ideas Activity/Agitation increase Speech pressured Thoughtlessness (doesn't think of consequences) cluster B disorders antisocial, borderline, histrionic, narcissitic Tourettes syn motor/vocal tics and involuntary profanity onset <18, tx haloperidol Rett disorder X linked only seen in girls (boys die in utero), loss of develop MR, hand wringing appears~4y.